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  1. 1
    323855
    Peer Reviewed

    World YWCA leaders and the UN decade for women.

    Garner K

    Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.

    This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)
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  2. 2
    112803

    Report of the Global Action against Female Genital Mutilation Project Second Annual Inter-Agency Working Group Meeting. Held at: AVSC International, New York, November 6 and 7, 1995.

    Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women [RAINBO]; Columbia University. Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]

    [Unpublished] 1995. [2], 19, [23] p.

    In November 1995, the Inter-Agency Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Meeting provided a forum for international agencies to share information on relevant policies and programs and technical knowledge in research, intervention, and evaluation and to develop ethical approaches and strategies for FGM activities. Following a summary of the welcoming remarks, the report of the meeting reviews global FGM activities in 1994. For example, Ghana outlawed FGM. Meeting participants heard an update on FGM-related presentations and/or discussions at the Beijing Conference. Next on the agenda was an overview of the current and future programs of the meeting's host, the Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBO). It revolved around grants and technical capacity building, communications and information dissemination, and the immigrant outreach project. In-country FGM-related activities in Egypt and Ethiopia were discussed next. International activities' updates were provided by UN and bilateral organizations (UNICEF, WHO, USAID, UNFPA, Overseas Development Agency, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) as well as technical agencies, private foundations, research institutions (Japan's Network for Women and Health, the Wallace Global Fund, Harvard University, Family Health International), Program for Appropriate Technologies in Health, and the Ford Foundation. A presentation by the president of the National Committee Against the Practice of Excision in Burkina Faso focused on FGM activities in Burkina Faso and addressed the plans for a West African operational research network to coordinate research activities and help integrate programs of intervention. The West Africa focus continued with a presentation on proposed projects in Mali and Ghana. New and innovative projects highlighted next included a video project in Burkina Faso and Human Rights Community Training Projects in Kenya. The meeting concluded with a discussion of strategies for the future.
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  3. 3
    055213

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  4. 4
    273192

    Final reports, 98th and 99th meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., 27 September 1986 and 22-26 June 1987. XXXII meeting of the Directing Council of PAHO, XXXIX meeting, WHO Regional Committee for the Americas, Washington, D.C., 21-25 September 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., 1987. 136 p. (Official Document No. 219)

    The 98th and 99th Meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, the XXXII Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, and the XXXIX Meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) Committee for the Americas were all held in Washington, D.C., between 9/86 and 9/87. This document contains the final reports of these conferences, including lists of all participants, and complete texts of all resolutions. The 99th Meeting resulted in Resolution VI, urging member countries to implement plans to control Aedes albopictus implicated in dengue, yellow fever, and california encephalitis. Resolution VII on Women, Health and Development, urging member nations to improve public and private comprehensive health care for women, and calling for increased participation of women in professional posts and representative roles within the organization; Resolution VIII, on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; and Resolution XII on AIDS Prevention and Control, which called for a WHO Special Program on AIDS and urged member countries to increase efforts at prevention and control, to provide information to WHO, and to permit free international travel for infected people. The XXXII Meeting contained Resolution IX on Women, Health and Development; Resolution X on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; Resolution XI on the Coordination of Social Security and Public Health Institutions; and Resolution XII on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.
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  5. 5
    273165

    Women and drug abuse.

    United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs. Branch for the Advancement of Women

    WOMEN 2000. 1987; (2):1-18.

    It has become clear that, although many groups and organizations are concerned with the general question of drug abuse, there has been little effort made to consider the problem with special reference to women. This issue draws attention to some of the elements that particularly concern women. The 1st section discusses the proceedings of the UN International Conference On Drug Abuse And Illicit Trafficking. Special attention is paid to the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control and the Declaration of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. The next section was prepared by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of the UN. It stresses maternal drug abuse and implications for intervention. The 3rd section discusses the activities of the Un Fund For Drug Abuse Control. The 4th section outlines rehabilitation approaches to drug and alcohol dependence including the ecological approach, survival skills training, assertiveness training, and health promotion. Finally the role of the Food and Agriculture Organizazion of the UN in combating drug abuse is analyzed.
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  6. 6
    054771

    Monitoring the impact of UNFPA basic needs assessment on women's projects.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women and Youth

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Aug. vi, 30 p.

    This report reviews the assessments of women's needs and the recommendations for specific women's projects in the UNFPA Basic Needs Assessment (BNA) reports. Because the BNA reports serve as a basis for the Fund's program development, the report also examines the extent to which BNA recommendations have led to the development of specific women's projects in the countries concerned. A total of 38 BNAs are included in the analysis. The text on women was reviewed to ascertain the extent to which the technical guidelines of a previously published UNFPA manual had been taken into account in assessments of women's special needs and in the formulation of recommendations for the improved integration of women in development. Although the majority of reports were found to be satisfactory, some issues were still neglected, among them: women's health problems and preventive health measures; professional and managerial training of health personnel; women's economic activities, remuneration and working conditions; women's participation in political life and in decision-making; women's access to educational facilities and curricular content; migration; the burden of household and job responsibilities for women working outside the home; the need for men to share in family and domestic responsibilities; and the need for men, especially male decision makers, to be educated on the potential contribution of women to development. This report also suggests ways of improving the consideration of women's concerns in BNAs and in program development.
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  7. 7
    164929

    Rights, reconstruction and enduring peace: Afghan women and children after the Taliban.

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children

    [Unpublished] [2002]. 19 p.

    As the conflict in Afghanistan enters a new phase, there are obstacles as well as opportunities for Afghan women and children. Although the Taliban no longer controls the entire country, women and children are far from enjoying the basic freedoms and rights acknowledged in legal instruments. Thus, ensuring respect for women's rights must be a pillar of the international community's political strategy in Afghanistan. This paper identifies issues of concern for Afghan women and children in the return and reconstruction phases. It is noted that the rights of children and adolescents should be a top priority for peace and reconstruction planning in Afghanistan. These rights require formal education, demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers, provision of health care and reproductive health services, trauma counseling, and skills training for adolescents and young adults. Experience in other conflict areas has proven that adolescents can be effective agents in rebuilding society as peer counselors, educators and role models. Finally, this paper provides recommendations to the international community on how it can and should respond to these challenges.
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  8. 8
    165085

    Glen Cove meeting of treaty organizations.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1999] 4 p.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the UN Division for the Advancement of Women and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights convened at Glen Cove, New York in December 1996, to consider ways to promote and protect women's right to health, gender equality, and empowerment. Representatives from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and several UN agencies joined the UNFPA meeting. Discussions included gender issues, reproductive and sexual rights, violations of these rights and ways to integrate gender awareness to their work. NGOs' role is valuable in distributing information of rights and thus, they are recognized to participate in treaty monitoring and conference implementation. Moreover, UNFPA together with other UN agencies promotes reproductive and sexual rights through technical assistance and training programs in developing countries, and support for advocacy and research.
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  9. 9
    161803

    [International system of protection of the human rights of women] Sistema internacional de proteccion de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.

    Bernales Ballesteros E

    In: Derechos humanos de las mujeres. Aportes y reflexiones, [compiled by] Movimiento Manuela Ramos. Lima, Peru, Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 1998 Nov. 161-97. (Serie Mujer y Derechos Humanos 6)

    The evolution over the past few decades of international law protecting the human rights of women is described, and the international instruments designed to protect these rights are assessed from the perspective of jurisprudence. The first sections examine factors that have allowed implantation of a culture of human rights throughout the entire planet to emerge as a goal of international law, and describe some assumptions underlying the theme of human rights of women. Documents that were crucial in the evolution are then analyzed, including the UN Charter, the first instrument expressly signaling the equality of rights of men and women, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The UN Commission on the Juridical and Social Condition of Women and the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 are also discussed. Mechanisms for international protection of the rights of women are examined, including the Declaration on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Other organs for protection that are discussed include the Human Rights Committee and the Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and regional mechanisms such as the Interamerican Human Rights Commission and Court and the Interamerican Conventions on Political Rights of Women, Civil Rights of Women, and Against Gender Violence. The final section contrasts the normative development of protections for women’s human rights with actual practices, and identifies the next steps that should be taken.
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  10. 10
    150649
    Peer Reviewed

    The role of FIGO in the advancement of women's health -- in the year 2000.

    Seppala M

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. 2000 Jul; 70(1):175-82.

    This paper reviews the role and activities of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) as a global federation with a mission to promote the health and well-being of women and to improve the practice of gynecology and obstetrics. To accomplish its mission, the General Assembly was formed to ratify recommendations on the governance of the organizations made by the Executive Board and the Officers. Among the structured activities of FIGO are included the Save the Mothers Fund Project Study Group on Women's, Sexual and Reproductive Rights, the Working Group on FIGO Classification of Female Urinary Incontinence, 21 Advisory Panels, FIGO Publications, FIGO Congress Bureau, the FIGO 2000 Congress Organizing Committee, the Scientific Committee, and the FIGO Secretariat based in London. Detailed discussion of the structured activities and their role in the advancement of women's health in the year 2000 are highlighted in this paper.
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  11. 11
    061007

    The position of women and changing multilateral policies.

    Joekes S

    Development. 1989; (4):77-82.

    Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
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  12. 12
    068561

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  13. 13
    271439

    Building on traditional patterns for women empowerment at grassroots level.

    Bakhteari QA

    Development. 1988; (4):55-60.

    UNICEF aided the Basic Urban Services for Katchi Abadie (BUSTI) in performing and action research project in order to study and improve the role of poor women in Pakistan. The study was conducted in Baldia Town Karachi (pop. 200,000 in 1979) and lasted over 6 years (1979-1986). Women and children were hired to work on the Baldia Soakpit Pilot project and were found to be illiterate. Distance, lack of money, and the need for help around the house were cited as reasons for illiteracy among children. The women in the community organized a traditional program of home schooling in 1981 and hired 10 girls who had at least a high school education to teach. 300 children participated in this program. The Baldia Memon Jamat NGO offered a health training program for young girls of the community. Several criteria, including teaching experience and economic status, were used to choose among the applicants. The home school program has expanded since 1981. 120 teachers and 4000 children took part in the program in 1988. The teachers organize a mothers' meeting once a month and are now registered as the Home School Teachers' Welfare Organization. Primary care and vaccinations are given through the home schools. Women play crucial roles in the development of the project, as developers, managers, and organizers. Young women have gained independence through education without sacrificing traditional values. The utilization of women in and by this program has helped increase women's self-esteem and has increased respect for these women from the community. The hope is that traditional barriers against the participation of women in community development will eventually be eradicated.
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  14. 14
    271438

    Contribution of women to human resource development in industry.

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization [UNIDO]

    Development. 1988; (4):47-51.

    The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) met in March 1988 to discuss the importance of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on the contribution of women to human resource development. Industrialization has adversely affected women at all developmental stages. Although women have been an important economic resource, they are confined to sterotypic roles in the household and/or are hired as low cost labor. Gender inequalities are enhanced by industrialization. Female access to upper level and technical jobs is limited. Companies view women as secondary earners, and women tend to have poor self images and low confidence levels. Education and training for women is practically nonexistent thereby displacing them in the workplace as mechanization increases. Self-employed women have problems establishing and acquiring credit. Labor laws are not enforced by smaller industries. Women do not have a significant voice in collective bargaining or any support services to help decrease their work load. Women's World Banking (WWB) has helped to increase the self-sufficiency of women through credit and education. The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in India organizes the Women's Bank and the Bangladesh Graneen Bank. Women in several countries have organized trade unions. NGOs can serve as pressure groups to push for women's rights. Recommendations to UNIDO include the support of training programs, the support of local governmental human resource planning, the facilitation of female participation in industrial development, and the increase of UNIDO's effectiveness on a more local level. NGOs are urged to be "catalysts of change" through lobbying and motivational techniques; to be "watchdogs" at UN and other conventions in order to monitor and facilitate the progress of women through legal means; to spread issue-related information through mass media; to support training and other services, including credit mechanisms; to organize support services; and to pressure trade unions in support of female workers.
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  15. 15
    271353

    The integrated project in Zambia.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Evaluation and Management Audit Department

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Mar; (19):10-23.

    The Integrated Project (IP) was started in Zambia in 1984 by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Africa Bureau in connection with the Zambia Flying Doctor Service (ZFDS) and the Planned Parenthood Association of ZAMBIA (PPAZ). The project was begun in 3 areas, Kabushi, Fiwale, and Kapata. Its 1st major task was a survey of parasite infestation, nutritional status, and family planning knowledge and practice. This was done between 1985 and 1987. Also at this time field educators carried out many activities. A PPAZ evaluation of the Kabushi project in 1987 found that although family planning knowledge was fairly widespread, there was no accompanying increase in practice. There is a downward trend in parasitosis in Fiwale and Kapata but no reduction in Kabushi. However, there were variations in sampling, so these results are questionable. Environmental sanitation measures are being taken. The prevalence of malnutrition is around 26% in each. Community participation is essential. Women's clubs have been formed in all 3 areas where family planning and other matters can be discussed. In 1987 the ZFDS trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs). 23 TBAs have also been trained in family planning. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) provided project guidelines. Numerous problems have been experienced in the 1st 3 years of the project. The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) has had to deal with 3 separate agencies (IPPF, PPAZ, and ZDFS). The project has worked well with ZFDS. 1 of the problems is personnel. Some of the personnel need specific training and orientation. Parasite control activities could be improved. A more active family planning program is being planned. It is recommended that during the remaining 3-year pilot period PPAZ should take on financial monitoring, and the staff should have an overall plan and more detailed annual plans.
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  16. 16
    051355

    1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.

    Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
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  17. 17
    055432

    Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

    Thahane TT

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.

    There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.
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  18. 18
    203698

    Child survival, women and population.

    Axelbank J

    [New York, United Nations, 1986.] 27 p.

    The ongoing crisis confronting women and children in the Third World--where disease and hunger are taking millions of lives of young children every year and where population growth still proceeds at an unacceptably high rate--is actually worsening in some areas. The European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population: Integrated Strategies was held under the auspices of The Netherlands government and organized in cooperation with 3 UN organizations: the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Fund for Population Activities. It is critical that the world regain the momentum of past decades in reducing appalling child mortality rates, improving the health and status of women, and slowing population growth. Development programs from health education to agriculture are hampered or crippled by the inability of development planners to recognize the centrality of the woman's role. Maternal and child health is the logical entry point for primary health care. Education is the springboard for rescuing women in the Third World from poverty, illness,endless childbearing, and lowly social status. One should educate women to save children. Women in the developing world must be given access to basic information to be able to take advantage of new, improved or rediscovered technologies such as 1) oral rehydration therapy, 2) vaccines, 3) growth monitoring through frequent charting to detect early signs of malnutrition, 4) breast feeding, and 5) birth spacing. Education is the single most documented factor affecting birth rate, status of women, and infant and child health. The presentations at The Hague threw into sharp relief the close links, the cause and effect chains, and the synergisms associated with all the factors connected, directly or indirectly, with child survival, women's status, and population--factors such as education, economic opportunities, and overall development questions. A 4-point agenda includes 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work closely together and to enhance the effectiveness of their programs, 2) seeking greater support for the UN's social development programs, 3) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of health, maternal and child survival and care, women's status, and freedom of choice in family matters, and 4) maintaining and strengthening commitment through the dialogue of parliamentarians.
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  19. 19
    047128

    It's our move now: a community action guide to the UN Nairobi forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women.

    Sandler J

    New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Centre, 1987 Sep. vi, 112 p.

    The document Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (also referred to as the FLS document) reflects a commitment on the part of governments to work to improve women's status through legislative, social, and economic reforms. The document stresses the full participation of women in all areas of society. It further emphasizes the close relationship between the 3 goals of the United Nations Decade for Women--equality, peace, and development. It is essential, however, that women's organizations take responsibility for monitoring government compliance with the principles of the FLS. This community action guide was prepared to increase awareness of the existence of the FLS document and to help women develop campaigns for pressuring their governments to enforce the recommendations they agreed to at the Nairobi World Conference. Although the FLS document covers 100s of issues important to women's lives, this action guide focuses on 13 issue: decision making, education and training, employment, energy and the environment, exploitation of women, food and water, health, housing and transport, legal rights, media and communications, migrants and refugees, peace, and young and old women. For each issue, activities are suggested that can encourage fundamental social change.
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  20. 20
    034916

    Breastfeeding--a life-saver in the Third World.

    Arton M

    MIDWIVES CHRONICLE. 1985 Jul; 98(1170):200-1.

    At the April meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO), experts in occupational health concluded that there is no evidence to justify the exclusion of women from any type of employment. Yet, they simultaneously underscored the need for conditions in places of work to be adapted to women, and in particular to those women employed in manual work, whether agriculture or manufacture. This was WHO's 1st meeting on the subject of health and the working woman. According to the experts, anatomical and physiological differences between men and women should not limit job opportunities. As more and more women enter the work force, machines need to be redesigned to take into account the characteristics of working women. In industries where strength is a requirement, e.g., mining, a certain level of body strength and size should be established and applied to both sexes. Also recommended were measures to protect women of childbearing age, who form the majority of women in the work force, against the hazards of chemicals -- gases, lead, solder fumes, sterilizing agents, pesticides -- and other threats to health deriving from the work places. Chemicals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body could lead to mutagenicity, not only of women but also of men. In cases where a woman has conceived, mutagenicity could mean fetal death, or, where damage is done to sperm or ovum, lead to congenital malformation and to leukemia in newborns. Solvents so absorbed could appear in breast milk, thus poisoning the baby. Ionizing radiation, used in several industrial operations, also has been linked to breast cancer. As women increasingly take jobs that once used to be done solely by men, more needs to be known about the hazards of their health and of the psychosocial implications of long working hours. The following were included among recommendations made to increase knowledge and to protect health: that epidemiological studies be conducted in the risk of working women as well as more research on the effects of chemicals on pregnant workers; that working women be allowed to breastfeed children for at least 6 months at facilities set up at work places; and that information and health education programs be carried out to alert women against occupational health hazards.
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  21. 21
    270351

    Women in health and development in South-East Asia.

    Dayal R

    New Delhi, India, World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 1985. vii, 126 p. (SEARO Regional Health Papers No. 8)

    The progress of activities to improve the health status of women in Southeast Asia, including WHO programs in family health, maternal and child health, and the training of women health workers, is examined in this paper. Data and information on the health and socioeconomic situation of women was drawn from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, the Mongolian People's Republic, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Compared to 1975, there is now a definite focus on women's issues in national and international forums, deeper understanding of women's position and role in the development of nations, and more emphatic advocacy of women's rights. Several Southeast Asian nations have enacted legislation outlawing discrimination and protecting women from exploitation at work and at home, but the amount of resources devoted to implementing and enforcing change has been far less than needed. Each country in the region is profiled individually giving national policies on women, data on women's health status, the socioeconomic situation, status of women in the health professions, health legislation and social support to women, and women's non-governmental organizations.
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  22. 22
    200168

    Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.

    This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
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  23. 23
    038090

    The role of women managers in family planning and population programs.

    Sadik N

    Washington, D.C., Centre for Development and Population Activities, 1986 Apr. 14 p. (CEDPA Tenth Anniversary Lecture Series)

    This discussion of the role of women managers in family planning and population programs begins with an overview of the participation of women in development and population. It then directs attention to the need for women in management, increasing women's role in development programs, and changing attitudes about women's roles. 1 of the major achievements of the Decade for Women has been the recognition by most governments of the need to integrate women more fully into the process of national socioeconomic development. More and more governments are making a concerted effort to increase the participation of women and to integrate them into development. An area in which opportunities for women have not increased as much as they could is in management. The role and involvement of women in population and family planning are particularly important. Family planning programs in many areas of the world are directed to women, involve women, and are utilized by women, yet women are not in the policy-making or management position, deciding what should be done for them. In management, the 5 basic concerns are authority to make decisions, communication within organizations, the opportunity to introduce change, the productivity of the operation, and staff morale. The most important positions for women managers are at the policy-making and decision-making levels, but few women are at those levels in most developing country programs. Women's knowledge of local customs, norms, and needs can be used in designing programs and in selecting methods and services. Many programs now are designed, and family planning methods selected, without a clear understanding of the local situations or local customs. Women managers have the responsibility to educate others about how to design, implement, and evaluate programs and projects that are sensitive to the needs of women. Thus, the family planning sector in particular must involve women in all stages and levels of program design and implementation. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) developed some guidelines on women, population, and development following the 1975 conference in Mexico inaugrating International Women's Year. The guidelines call for special attention to the needs and concerns of women and for participation of women in all stages and aspects of the UNFPA program. Since 1984, UNFPA has been examining how it can address the involvement of women in population programs and ways to improve the role and status of women. It tires to suppport projects in 2 major categories: projects aimed directly at improving the role and status of women by increasing their access to educational training and skills development and their participation in the community; and activities aimed at increasing the participation of women in all UNFPA-supported projects, which must be designed with consideration to the needs and concerns of women.
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  24. 24
    268663

    Development co-operation with women: the experience and future directions of the fund.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs [DIESA], Development Fund for Women, 1985. 195 p. (United Nations Publication ST/ESA/159)

    This report covers the activities of the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for Women--currently called the United Nations Development Fund for Women--during the period 1978-1983. The objectives of the projects included regional and national strategies for the promotion of development in developing countries. They dealt with poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, self-reliance, health and nutrition; they promoted employment and self-sufficiency and created import-substitution products; they included agricultural production, human resource development through education and training, and institution-building. The assessment affirmed that women do participate in the development process but that they participate under unequal conditions. The findings of the assessment were also in agreement with the view of the General Assembly that changes in the family division of labor are needed in order to secure the participation of women on more equitable terms. Another lesson drawn from the projects that provides guidance for future activities is that projects should preferably be multi-faceted, encompassing human development needs as well as technical subjects. The cultural and political environments in which projects were implemented and the traditions of societies, when properly taken into account, contributed to the positive impact of projects. An obstacle faced in project implementation in several countries was the outdated and thus inadequate preparation of extension workers to cope with the multi-faceted work of women. Institutions were critical elements of project viability. The existence of local and national women's organizations and agencies proved to be a necessary condition for project effectiveness. The Fund reached policy levels from several directions. Although the effectiveness of these approaches varies both by country and by region, an interim judgment is that effective field projects may be the best approach.
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  25. 25
    042591

    An evaluation of Pathfinder's early marriage education program in Indonesia, November-December 1984.

    Dornsife C; Mahmoed A

    Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Pathfinder Fund, 1986 Feb. 41 p. (Pathfinder Fund Working Papers No. 4)

    Indonesian government officials determined in the early 1970's that an increase in marriage age as well as in the use of contraceptives would be needed to reduce the country's growth rate. In 1974, the Marriage Law Reform Act increased the minimun marriageable age, but compliance was rare. In 1981, Pathfinder initiated a campaign to address this. The 1st objective was to educate influentials (e.g. religious leaders). The 2nd objective was to gather information and promote discussion of societal norms that lead to early marriage and childbearing. The underlying assumptions were that non-compliance arose from a lack of knowledge about the marriage law and that norms promoting early marriage and fertility were amenable to change. The program reviewed in this working paper covers 6 projects with 5 prominent Indonesian organizations--3 women's groups, a national public health association, and a branch of the Family Planning Coordinating Board. The activities began with national seminars to discuss objectives. National and local-level activities followed, ranging from the publication of a national bulletin to training marriage counselors. Women's groups incorporated the education program into their ongoing functions. Program effects were widespread. Evaluators' assessment in 1984 found that the controversial topic of adolescent fertility has been intensively discussed at national and local levels. Their recommendations include: focusing work on large-impact organizations, evaluation of certain projects, support for various projects, concentrating on key issues. The training project management should be integrated into Pathfinder's schedule. Studies should be performed to make sure this desin is not too ambitious. Baseline data should be incorporated. The 2-year approach should be extended to 5, since the impact of marriage age legislation will not be felt for several years.
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