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  1. 1

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  2. 2

    World survey on the role of women in development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. [2], 238 p.

    This overview of women in development includes chapters devoted to women's participation in the labor force and the invisibility of some work, the benefits for women from economic development and the impact on women from economic trends, and a cost-benefit analysis. Other chapters focus on women's role in agriculture, industrial development, finance, science and technology, and trade; on women's use and conservation of energy resources; and on the concept of self-reliance and integration of women in development. Statistical tables and a bibliography accompany each of the sections. Conclusions are drawn on self-reliance that neither development in specific industrial areas nor cooperation within each area is sufficient to respect the need for selecting women specifically as the targeted group. Most developing countries were found not to have a detailed analysis of the development role of women. There appears to be a conceptual lack of clarity about priorities for improving the status of women versus changing their development role. Women themselves are viewed as the arbiters of what their role in development should be. The self-reliance strategy is considered an integral approach to development and one in which the full productive and social emancipation of women is required. Social change in developing countries will come about when the role of women in society changes regardless of the culture and in tune with changes in women's position in the world at large. Development models need to be changed in ways which recognize the "true" economic role of women and their social role. The international community should maintain better communication and closer cooperation nationally, internationally, and within existing institutions that are concerned with developing countries.
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  3. 3

    Women as providers of health care.

    Pizurki H; Mejia A; Butter I; Ewart L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1987. 163 p.

    The intent of this publication is to create a broader awareness among people in general as well as and decision-makers of the extent of women's contribution to national health development and the obstacles they face both within and outside the formal health system. It also seeks to create more awareness of the sources of the imbalance between men and women in the extent and nature of their participation in health care. Information is provided about the basic factors to be considered in the development of a longterm strategy to improve the socioeconomic status of women health care providers. the publication else seeks to guide women and men to plan relevant action and to prepare proposals for funding and other forms of support. Women outnumber men as health care providers both within and outside the family and in formal and non- formal settings. Gender-role differentiation is responsible for a sexual division of labor in the family and in the formal labor market. Due to the major contributions women make to people's health, education, and wellbeing, a change in attitude is indicated. The accomplishments of women in the health care field should be recognized, valued, and rewarded rather than concealed, denied, and trivialized.
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  4. 4

    Breastfeeding--a life-saver in the Third World.

    Arton M

    MIDWIVES CHRONICLE. 1985 Jul; 98(1170):200-1.

    At the April meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO), experts in occupational health concluded that there is no evidence to justify the exclusion of women from any type of employment. Yet, they simultaneously underscored the need for conditions in places of work to be adapted to women, and in particular to those women employed in manual work, whether agriculture or manufacture. This was WHO's 1st meeting on the subject of health and the working woman. According to the experts, anatomical and physiological differences between men and women should not limit job opportunities. As more and more women enter the work force, machines need to be redesigned to take into account the characteristics of working women. In industries where strength is a requirement, e.g., mining, a certain level of body strength and size should be established and applied to both sexes. Also recommended were measures to protect women of childbearing age, who form the majority of women in the work force, against the hazards of chemicals -- gases, lead, solder fumes, sterilizing agents, pesticides -- and other threats to health deriving from the work places. Chemicals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body could lead to mutagenicity, not only of women but also of men. In cases where a woman has conceived, mutagenicity could mean fetal death, or, where damage is done to sperm or ovum, lead to congenital malformation and to leukemia in newborns. Solvents so absorbed could appear in breast milk, thus poisoning the baby. Ionizing radiation, used in several industrial operations, also has been linked to breast cancer. As women increasingly take jobs that once used to be done solely by men, more needs to be known about the hazards of their health and of the psychosocial implications of long working hours. The following were included among recommendations made to increase knowledge and to protect health: that epidemiological studies be conducted in the risk of working women as well as more research on the effects of chemicals on pregnant workers; that working women be allowed to breastfeed children for at least 6 months at facilities set up at work places; and that information and health education programs be carried out to alert women against occupational health hazards.
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  5. 5

    Nairobi Conference: end of women's decade. Special issue.

    United Nations. International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW]

    Instraw News, Women and Development. 1985 Jun; 2(1-2):1-64.

    Efforts to achieve a more holistic, integrated approach to solve problems of relevance for women culminated in the proclamation of the UN Decade for Women with its triple objectives: Equality, Development and Peace. During this decade many outstanding activities were undertake, particularly within the UN. A number of major international conferences and other world events have highlighted the interelatedness of status and position of women with major world problems. A large body of innovative concepts, approaches and strategies related to women and development resulted. This paper examines the achievements of the UN Decade for Women, analyzing obstacles encountered and discusses proposed ways of achieving the yet to be realized goals in development of women. The agenda of the 5th Session of the Board of Trustees of INSTRAW is presented and includes the following: progress report of the Director; INSTRAW participation in the World Conference to Review and Appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for Women; network building--correspondents and focal points; proposed medium-term plan; fund-raising activities; other matters related to the functioning of the institute; adoption of the report of the session. Frameworks of cooperation and support of focal points established through the network system, are discussed. The following areas are examined: INSTRAW's work on indicators and related statistics on women; women and international economic relations; the importance of research and training to the integration of women in development; training women entrepreneurs in industry; the role of women in new and renewable source of energy; women and the household; women and development in New Delhi; the role of women in developing countries; and the International Women's Day. Today, more and more women are entering the labor force; an increasing number of women with family responsiblities no longer interrupt their career, but remain in the labor force; part time employment is increasing for both sexes but especially for women who form the overwhelming majority of part time workers; women's share of unemployment is disproportionately high; women's participation in service sector occupations is increasing rapidly; occupation segretation between the sexes continues; and women are still mostly in low-skill, low-pay, low-status jobs often with little job security. Further research is needed to: review and analyze the development strategy espoused so far in relation to approaches and concepts; identify the economic dimension of actual development theories and approaches; assess benefits and losses resulting from socioeconomic changes, examine the link between national and international dimensions and examine problems.
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  6. 6

    Income generating activities with women's participation: a re-examination of goals and issues.

    Hoskins MW

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, 1980 Dec. 45 p. (Contract AID/otr/147-80-76)

    Of all of USAID's various projects, income generating programs attract the most interest. Women's income generation includes any self-supporting project where benefits accrue to women participants from sale of items for money, from employment for wages, or increased produce. Projects which include planting trees to increase fuel or fodder supply, conserving soil, using appropriate technology, or eliminating waste, may benefit participants either in income or in acquisition. Poor women in India are paid in precooked food. Selecting the right project for the right group of people is the key to success. Specific considerations include the following: 1) products being supplied to the market; 2) available economic, natural, and skill resources; 3) any social organization which includes the identified group of women; 4) what social welfare needs have the highest priority; and, 5) how can the political structure help or hinder the identified group's economic participation and/or success? An insufficient resource base, market and management skills have been identified by many developers as the weakest aspect in women's projects. For small businesses the most important questions are as follows: what is the market; why is the project needed by the market; what are the steps from obtaining raw materials until the profits are distributed or reinvested; what are the potentials for growth; what is the outside expertise needed; and, how will the outside expertise be obtained and paid?
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  7. 7

    Population growth and economic activity.

    Australia. Commonwealth Department of Employment and Industrial Relations. Manpower Economic Branch

    In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 2. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 324-52. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)

    On the basis of data from labor force surveys, a profile of Australia's economically active population is presented for the 1966-80 period. This period encompassed both sustained postwar economic growth and a decline in economic activity, with the development of trends likely to affect the future structure of the Australian economy. In 1980, the labor force totalled 6,639.0 thousand--4,180.0 thousand males (77.9%) and 2,459.0 thousand females (44.7%), of whom 1,482.1 thousand (42.8%) were married. There has been a marked increase in labor force participation among married women, due to changing attitudes toward working outside the home, increased child care facilities, smaller family size, greater parttime employment opportunities, and the growth of industries traditionally employing women. There has also been a decline in labor force participation among men in the older age groups, reflecting both low labor demand and the trend toward earlier retirement. The Australian labor force is highly mobile, with 25% of employees changing employers each year. Most of this mobility is within urban centers. The share of total employment represented by parttime workers rose from 9.8% in 1966 to 16.4% in 1980. Married women comprise 60% of the parttime workers. The composition of the labor force by industry was as follows in 1980: agriculture and services to agriculture, 6.06%; mining, 1.35%; manufacturing, 19.74%; construction, 7.74%; trade, 20.26%; transport and storage, 5.47%; finance and business, 8.17%; community services, 16.13%; entertainment, restaurants, and personal services, 6.19%; and other, 8.89%. The trend in the 1966-80 period has been toward a decline in jobs in agriculture and manufacturing and an increase in positions in the service sector. The number of professional and technical workers increased 4.8%/year in this period. Most of the increase was among teachers and medical workers, reflecting increased government funding to the health and education sectors. Real earnings increased by 45% from $94/week in 1966 to $136/week in 1974, then levelled off. Women's earnings average 67% those of men. The unemployment rate began rising in the mid-1970s and stood at 4.9% in 1980. Unemployment is particularly high among women in all age groups and 15-24 year old males.
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