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Mid-term review report: 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation, Government of the Sultanate of Oman-UNICEF.
Muscat, Oman, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training, 1999. 65 p.The Mid-Term Review of the 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Oman and UNICEF was held - after a long and productive process of consultation - in May 1999, in Muscat, under the coordination of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training. A total of 55 participants from Government ministries and national bodies attended, along with representatives from UNICEF Muscat, Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa, and New York headquarters. Discussions were wide-ranging and productive, with frank appraisals of programme processes and achievements and useful intersectoral perspectives on programme cooperation. (excerpt)
INTEGRATION. 1989 Mar; (19):10-23.The Integrated Project (IP) was started in Zambia in 1984 by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Africa Bureau in connection with the Zambia Flying Doctor Service (ZFDS) and the Planned Parenthood Association of ZAMBIA (PPAZ). The project was begun in 3 areas, Kabushi, Fiwale, and Kapata. Its 1st major task was a survey of parasite infestation, nutritional status, and family planning knowledge and practice. This was done between 1985 and 1987. Also at this time field educators carried out many activities. A PPAZ evaluation of the Kabushi project in 1987 found that although family planning knowledge was fairly widespread, there was no accompanying increase in practice. There is a downward trend in parasitosis in Fiwale and Kapata but no reduction in Kabushi. However, there were variations in sampling, so these results are questionable. Environmental sanitation measures are being taken. The prevalence of malnutrition is around 26% in each. Community participation is essential. Women's clubs have been formed in all 3 areas where family planning and other matters can be discussed. In 1987 the ZFDS trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs). 23 TBAs have also been trained in family planning. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) provided project guidelines. Numerous problems have been experienced in the 1st 3 years of the project. The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) has had to deal with 3 separate agencies (IPPF, PPAZ, and ZDFS). The project has worked well with ZFDS. 1 of the problems is personnel. Some of the personnel need specific training and orientation. Parasite control activities could be improved. A more active family planning program is being planned. It is recommended that during the remaining 3-year pilot period PPAZ should take on financial monitoring, and the staff should have an overall plan and more detailed annual plans.
MCH NEWS PAC. 1987 Fall; 2(4):5, 11.Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 1983 Jul. 20 p. (Information for Action Resource Guide)Women in developing countries have special nutritional needs because of the tremendous physical burdens they bear in daily tasks, pregnancy, and lactation. Poverty and custom often cause these needs to go unmet. Poor maternal nutrition affects not only the mother's health, but also that of her children. While some elements of maternal nutrition are well known, discussion and experimentation continue on important nutritional and delivery issues. This Resource Guide, aimed at field staff who are not nutritionists, summarizes recent literature on this important topic. The annotations discuss both the causes and effects of maternal undernutrition. They also describe simple monitoring techniques to gauge maternal nutrition status and short-term programmatic interventions such as food fortification, food supplementation, vitamin distribution, and health education. The documents chosen synthesize important issues and experiences. The documents included are highly selective; some important literature and projects are not mentioned as this guide is mainly designed for busy program officials. Readers are encouraged to consult the references cited thorughout the guide for in-depth studies. Non-technical language is used throughout the text to facilitate understanding of the main concepts and issues.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Action programmes for the qualitative improvements of population education: report of a Regional Consultative Seminar, Bangkok, Thailand, 11-18 Oct. 1982.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1983. 102 p.The main objectives of this seminar were: 1) to provide opportunities for countries to share population education experience; and 2) to develop action programs for the improvement of these programs at the national and regional levels in the formal and nonformal sectors. 27 participants from southeast Asian and Oceania plus observers from international organizations took part. Developments, trends and analysis of problems in population education are discussed. A number of awareness and commitment activities have been carried out. Planning and management of population education programs was discussed, as was reconceptualization of curriculum and materials development. Personnel were trained in formal and nonformal education. There is a need for population education programs for special groups--such as women who face greater fertility risk, and the disadvantaged living in rural and urban slums. Evaluative research needs to address remedial action. The institutionalization of population education is a goal which every country has set. Much remains to be done in the way of documentation and information exchange. Relevant population education components should be integrated not only into formal education, but also with programs in literacy and adult education, rural development, community development, health and nutrition, skill developments and women's development. The goals of the regional program for the development of population education are: 1) to promote among all persons connected with the educational process an understanding of population issues and decision-making processes, attitudes and behavior in regard to population issues; 2) to provide technical advice to members. Of 44 countries, only 20 have on-going population education programs. Some recommendations are: 1) that a regional workshop in developing a mechanism for resource sharing and information exchange be established; and 2) that an ongoing translation program be developed.