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From silent spring to vocal vanguard - women's role in the global environmental movement - includes related articles.
UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3): p..Since 1962, when American author Rachel Carson alerted the world to the dangers of pesticide poisoning in her ground-breaking book "Silent Spring", women have played a vital role in the global environmental movement. In 1988, the World Commission on Environment and Development, headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, published its report, "Our Common Future", linking the environmental crisis to unsustainable development and financial practices that were worsening the North-South gap, with women making up a majority of the world's poor and illiterate. The United Nations Development Programme has defined sustainable development as development that not only generates economic growth, but distributes its benefits equitably, that regenerates the environment rather than destroying it, and that empowers people rather than marginalizing them. It is development that gives priority to the poor, enlarging their choices and opportunities and providing for their participation in decisions that affect their lives. (excerpt)
Gender, Technology and Development. 2001 Sep-Dec; 5(3):341-364.Empowering women of forest based societies to participate in local forest management has become an essential rhetorical commitment of donor funded 'participatory' forestry projects and state policies for devolution of forest management. Instead of increasing women's empowerment, the top-down interventions of a World Bank funded forestry project in Uttarakhand are doing the opposite by disrupting and marginalizing their own struggles and achievements, transferring power and authority to the forest department and local elite men. A number of case studies illustrate the project's insensitivity to the dynamic functioning of existing self-governing institutions and the women's ongoing struggles within them to gain greater voice and control over forest resources for improving their quality of life and livelihood security. The article argues for active engagement of forest women and their communities in the policy and project formulation process itself, which permits building upon women's and men's own initiatives and struggles while strengthening gender-equal democratization of self-governing community forestry institutions. (author's)
From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.
New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.