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Integration of human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Letter dated 16 May 2003 from the Permanent Representative of Bhutan to the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Jun 12. 3 p. (E/CN.4/2004/G/3)I wish to refer to Addendum 1 to your report to the 59th session of the Commission on Human Rights containing an analysis of developments in the area of violence against women at the international, regional and national level, and to provide the following additional information regarding the entry on Bhutan, with a request that these be reflected in the final report. Most national studies on gender show that Bhutan is relatively "gender-balanced" and that there is no overt gender discrimination. Bhutanese women enjoy freedom and equality in most spheres of life. In view of the general overall equality of women and men, no legislation explicitly prohibits discrimination against women. (excerpt)
Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):11-18.Reproductive and sexual ill-health account for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men. The strategy presented in this document is the World Health Organization’s first global strategy on reproductive health. It was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2004. Five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health are targeted: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combatting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. The strategy was developed as a result of extensive consultations in all regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, non-governmental organizations, United Nations partners and other key stakeholders. It lays out actions needed for accelerating progress towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international goals and targets relating to reproductive health, especially those from the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 and its five-year follow-up. ‘‘The strong endorsement of this strategy by the WHA represents an unequivocal message that countries are committed to do all they can to achieve the goals and targets of the ICPD Programme of Action adopted in 1994.’’ (author's)
Mid-term review report: 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation, Government of the Sultanate of Oman-UNICEF.
Muscat, Oman, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training, 1999. 65 p.The Mid-Term Review of the 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Oman and UNICEF was held - after a long and productive process of consultation - in May 1999, in Muscat, under the coordination of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training. A total of 55 participants from Government ministries and national bodies attended, along with representatives from UNICEF Muscat, Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa, and New York headquarters. Discussions were wide-ranging and productive, with frank appraisals of programme processes and achievements and useful intersectoral perspectives on programme cooperation. (excerpt)
The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Report of National Workshop to Review Researches into Dukun Activities related to MCH Care and Family Planning.
[Jakarta], Indonesia, Department of Health, 1972. 83 p.A number of studies conducted already have revealed that there are possibilities of using dukuns as potential helpers in the family planning programme. Bearing in mind that the number of dukuns at the present time is large, it is easy to imagine that they are capable of contributing a great deal towards progress in our family planning programme provided that the dukuns are assigned a role which is appropriate. In this respect, I am only referring to dukuns whose prime function is helping mothers during pregnancy and immediately afterwards, and who have close contact therefore, with the target of the family planning programme, i.e. the eligible couples. It would indeed be very helpful, if we could find out from the available data and from the results of applied research what exactly is the scope and usefulness of dukuns in the family planning programme. It seems to me that in this project we have to consider a twofold problem. The first aspect of the problem is that the dukuns are mostly of an advanced age and they are illiterate. The second aspect is that in spite of relationships with MCH centers extending over a period of years most of the dukuns still prefer their own way of doing things and they remain unaffected by modern ways of thinking. (excerpt)
National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.
[Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. , 64 p.Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
Nairobi, Kenya, Government of Kenya, 1998. 259 p.The 1998 Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Kenya highlights the policy of the UN Children's Fund of initiating a rights-based approach to program planning. Chapter 1 reviews the social and economic base, which plays an important role in the formulation of policies, and programs aimed at improving the welfare of children and women. Discussion covers a geographical, environmental, political, administrative and economic overview and an analysis of the economy. Key issues of poverty, labor force, demographic and sociocultural perspectives and how they interplay to influence the situation of children and women are also discussed. Chapter 2 explores the extent to which the Kenyan law protects the rights of women and children. Chapter 3 summarizes the national and legal policy framework, reviews and analyzes the status of women and children participation in education, highlights key strategies for moving ahead, and examines collective efforts for the provision of education. Chapter 4 examines the survival rights of children including 1) the rights to maternal and child health; 2) the right to nutrition; 3) the right to household food security; and 4) the right to water and environmental sanitation. Also, it examines the situation of HIV infection and AIDS in children and women. Finally, chapter 5 identifies opportunities for sustainable and effective intervention.
Income generating activities for women under the World Bank assisted ICDS project in Andhra Pradesh -- an evaluation.
In: Women's development: problems and prospects, edited by Shamim Aleem. New Delhi, India, APH Publishing Corporation, 1996. 149-56.Launched on October 2, 1975, to enhance the health, nutrition, and learning opportunities for children under age 6 years and their mothers by simultaneously providing all requisite services at the village level, the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) is the world's largest child nutrition, health, and mothercare program. The ICDS provides a package of services in supplementary nutrition, immunization, health check-ups, referral services, the treatment of minor illnesses, nutrition and health education, water supply, and sanitation. One objective of the ICDS is to enhance the capability of mothers to meet the normal health and nutritional needs of their children through proper nutrition and health education. The ICDS is currently being implemented in more than 3000 of 5153 community development blocks in India. A 6-year subprogram was launched in 1990 with World Bank support to accelerate the pace of improvement in the nutrition and health status of children under age 6 years. 6148 Mahila Mandals have been involved in the World Bank ICDS Project in 52 blocks. Subprogram evaluation findings are presented.
In: Innovative approaches to population programme management. Volume 3. Reproductive health, edited by Jay Satia, Sharifah Tahir. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes [ICOMP], 1995. 1-10.The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development set forth a goal of achieving comprehensive reproductive health for men, women, and adolescents. Reproductive health problems, which affect from a half a million to hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year, include unmet family planning (FP) needs, infertility, maternal mortality and morbidity, perinatal mortality, low-birth-weight infants, unsafe abortions, HIV infections, AIDS, curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and female genital mutilation. Reproductive health services, therefore, include FP services, prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections and STDs, prevention and assessment of HIV/AIDS cases, maternal and child care, prevention and treatment of infertility, prevention of abortion and management of its consequences, gynecological services, and active discouragement of harmful practices. The paradigm shift necessary to provide such services requires reorientation and restructuring of programs, paying attention to gender issues, establishing partnerships, and strengthening leadership. Innovative programs that address elements of reproductive health care include the efforts of Brazil's PRO-PATER to include and serve men, an innovative STD clinic in Kenya, family welfare services provided to employees by the Tata Iron and Steel Company in India, and the UMATI youth program in Tanzania in which youth are trained as peer counselors.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
PEOPLE. 1991; 18(4):10-2.The head of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Sadako Ogata, anticipates continued growth in the numbers of migrants and refugees in the 21st century, in part as a result of the collapse of the political and economic systems in developing countries and Eastern Europe. Development assistance that provides jobs, alleviates poverty, and seeks to maintain family structures in developing countries is necessary for both urban and rural areas, and nongovernmental organizations are being urged to prioritize education, training, and primary health care activities. Of particular concern are the special needs of refugees and migrants who are women and children. Children are most susceptible to the diseases, especially diarrhea and subsequent dehydration, that are prevalent in refugee camps. Needing further attention is the psychological trauma to refugee children created by dislocation and exposure to war. Maternal-child health care, including family planning, is another area in need of greater emphasis. Although women head most families in refugee camps, camp management tends to be male-dominated and the special needs of women and children are not receiving sufficient attention. Activities that go beyond basic sustainment of life will have beneficial effects in the longterm as well, as refugees are repatriated and reintegrated into the community.
In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 47-53. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)Jordan is a country of 3 million people, with an annual growth rate of 3.5%. 52% of the population is under 15, and the average family consists of 6.7 persons. 65% of the population is urban. Life expectancy is 64 years, and the birth rate is 48/1000 population. The National Population Commission is mandated to advise the government on population matters. Family planning has been integrated with maternal-child health services since 1979, and the government tacitly supports the work of nongovernmental agencies, including the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association, which was established in 1964 and is funded by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association carries out contraceptive services through its 8 clinics. In 1984 it implemented an information, education, and communication program with the Johns Hopkins University. The Association, in cooperation with the Margaret Sanger Center of New York, is establishing 3 new clinics in underserved areas. The Association's activities are planned and supervised by an ad hoc coordinating committee, but the staff is mainly voluntary. In 1987 a study was done to discover the attitudes of rural women toward family planning. Most women are opposed to early marriage and think that the ideal family should have between 3 and 5 children. Most of the women preferred the IUD as a contraceptive method and considered their physician as the best available source of information. The women approve of the family planning clinics, but feel that service should be free, and a doctor, preferrably female, should be available.
Lancet. 1989 Sep 30; 2(8666):795.In late August, the World Health Organization convened a technical working group in Geneva to consult on the measurement of reproductive morbidity in women. In many places ill health and injuries associated with childbearing are so common that people tend to accept them as normal and unavoidable, no matter how severe. Therefore the true extent of such illnesses is not known; according to some estimates, for every maternal death (of which there are some 500,000 a year) 10-15 women are injured or disabled by pregnancy or labor. The working group were seeking practical ways to measure reproductive morbidity. The need for community-based studies was recognized, and the working group thought that priority should be given to conditions such as vesicovaginal fistula, obstetric palsies, secondary infertility, sepsis, dyspareunia, prolapse and psychoses. One of the difficulties in measuring such morbidities will be getting access to the women and letting them know they can be helped. But the 1st step is to devise methods for measurement of reproductive morbidity. During the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985) the sheer suffering associated with maternity gradually became apparent. But much more than a decade is needed to recognize, measure, and correct the abuse and neglect of centuries. Could it be that we should be talking of WCH rather than just MCH? [full text]
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.
MCH NEWS PAC. 1987 Fall; 2(4):5, 11.Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 1983 Jul. 20 p. (Information for Action Resource Guide)Women in developing countries have special nutritional needs because of the tremendous physical burdens they bear in daily tasks, pregnancy, and lactation. Poverty and custom often cause these needs to go unmet. Poor maternal nutrition affects not only the mother's health, but also that of her children. While some elements of maternal nutrition are well known, discussion and experimentation continue on important nutritional and delivery issues. This Resource Guide, aimed at field staff who are not nutritionists, summarizes recent literature on this important topic. The annotations discuss both the causes and effects of maternal undernutrition. They also describe simple monitoring techniques to gauge maternal nutrition status and short-term programmatic interventions such as food fortification, food supplementation, vitamin distribution, and health education. The documents chosen synthesize important issues and experiences. The documents included are highly selective; some important literature and projects are not mentioned as this guide is mainly designed for busy program officials. Readers are encouraged to consult the references cited thorughout the guide for in-depth studies. Non-technical language is used throughout the text to facilitate understanding of the main concepts and issues.
[Unpublished] 1982. 12 p.UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) policies on family planning have evolved over time deriving inspiration from the pioneering efforts of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and other nongovernmental organizations. For UNICEF, the health aspects, particularly maternal and child health, of family planning have always been a major area of concern. This was the case much before a formal policy position on family planning was adopted in 1967 and a decision was made to provide the traditional forms of assistance to maternal and child health (MCH) services through supplies, equipment, transport to primary health centers, subcenters, stipends, and equipment for training of medical and paramedical staff. In 1970 the UNICEF Executive Board gave its consent to the inclusion of contraceptives. In 1972 the Joint Committee on Health Policy recommended to the Board the need for complementary social measures for delivery of family planning services through MCH organizations. Excerpts from a 1975 document best express UNICEF's policy regarding family planning. UNICEF works for population programs for many child oriented reasons, the most important of which are the following: an effective population program which spaces births consequently reduces infant and maternal deaths; an effective population program contributes to better health of children and women; and an effective population program contributes to the proper mental development of children. The contributions of UNICEF in population programs are ingrained in its assistance to training of primary health care workers and traditional birth attendants, increasing the accessibility of health centers and the mobility of MCH workers in nutrition programs. In the past 10 years or so UNICEF has been assisting various governments in East Asia and Pakistan in training traditional birthattendants in improving delivery practices. In this decade the training curriculum has been broadened to include training the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to motivate mothers to become family planning acceptors and maintain them once they become acceptors. The assistance of UNICEF to primary health care takes various forms, including water and sanitation, expanded programs for immunization, nutrition, and others. UNICEF continues to increase MCH accessibility. UNICEF actively promotes breastfeeding globally. It also assists in various area specific development programs in the region. The various programs focusing on women in the region are supported by UNICEF and contribute toward achieving population goals in various ways.
World Health Forum. 1983; 4(4):362-4.The Save the Children Fund opened a maternal and child health clinic in Dhankuta bazaar, Nepal in 1977. Because of the inefficient preventive aspect of the services, a study was undertaken to identify factors that would make people decide to adopt new practices related to health. This article discusses the results of this study. Food productivity and shortages, work responsibilities and lack of knowledge of certain development services are mainly responsible for the present situation in regard to maternal and child health in this area. Ignorance of matters related to health and nutrition, and economic constraints preventing families from adopting new ideas were the 2 causes of malnutrition and ill health. The child health support program was created by coordinated efforts of the Women's Club and the Save the Children Fund. The Women's Clubs are responsible for teaching and training village women and girls in agriculture, income generating activities, health, and reading and writing. Improvement in teaching of health and agriculture in schools was also sought. This led to the creation of a mobile teacher-training program. This program also provides an opportunity to stimulate an awareness among the teachers of the importance of their role in the development of children's attitudes towards health and agriculture.