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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.Contraceptives, drugs, and medical supplies required for reproductive health services in developing regions cost US$1.84 billion in 2000, will cost $2.34 billion in 2005, and will rise in cost to $3.43 billion by 2015. Annual costs will be 86 per cent higher, in constant dollars, in 2015 than in 2000 (Figure 1). These estimates cover contraceptives for family planning, condoms for protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and drugs and medical supplies for safe deliveries and other reproductive health services. Drugs and medical supplies make up over half the total cost, contraceptives around one-third, and condoms for protection the remaining one-eighth or so. The estimates are detailed in this report, which attempts to assess the overall costs of reproductive health commodities, which UNFPA has traditionally had a major role in helping provide for developing regions. These commodities are essential to achieve the goal of providing universal access to reproductive health care, as mandated in 1994 by the International Conference on Population and Development. The report is not intended to specify the quantities and cost of commodities needed in particular countries but rather tries to arrive at estimates of global requirements. Nevertheless, the calculations are based on detailed consideration of regional and even country data where they are available. The report assesses the number of cases in developing regions of each relevant reproductive health condition, projects these numbers over 15 years, determines the commodities required as part of appropriate treatment, estimates the proportion of cases that do receive such treatment, specifies how coverage should rise in the future, and calculates the commodity costs for all the cases to be covered. (excerpt)
Female genital mutilation: the prevention and the management of the health complications. Policy guidelines for nurses and midwives.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2001. 16 p. (WHO/FCH/GWH/01.5; WHO/RHR/01.18)These guidelines are intended for use primarily by those responsible for developing policies and directing the working practices of nurses, midwives and other frontline health care providers. They are also intended to complement the training materials for nurses and midwives in the management of girls and women with FGM. The purpose of the policy guidelines is: to promote and strengthen the case against the medicalization of FGM; to support and protect nurses, midwives and other health personnel in adhering to WHO guidelines not to close an opened up infibulation; to empower nurses and midwives to carry out functions in relation to FGM which are outside their current legal scope of practice; and to encourage appropriate documentation of FGM in clinical records and health information system. (excerpt)
HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL. 1996 Sep-Oct; 17(5):449-67.This paper considers problems of definition, measurement, and management of quality health care for women as well as barriers to quality of care, including information, access, and use barriers. It then describes a number of interventions supported by the World Health Organization designed to improve the quality of care provided and women's access to and use of health services. Interventions need to take into account the perspectives of both health workers and women, as well as the constraints they face in providing and receiving services, respectively. The authors broadly focus upon women's health, considering reproduction as well as other health concerns such as tropical diseases endemic to developing countries. They argue that in nonreproductive health, there is a general lack of information upon the biological and social determinants and consequences of infection and disease from a gender perspective. Recommendations are made for further research into the quality of care and for practical interventions with application to women's health, both within and outside of the reproductive context.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.