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  1. 1
    286126

    Gender mainstreaming: Can it work for women's rights?

    Williams M; Win E; Johnsson-Latham G; Sandler J

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov. [12] p. (Spotlight No. 3)

    Gender mainstreaming was meant to deliver women their equality, or so says the Beijing Platform for Action which refers to the term over 35 times. It was the process we embraced and vociferously fought for in the many meetings, negotiations and documents leading up to Beijing. Yet ten years later, not only is the Beijing Platform for Action taken seriously by few, gender mainstreaming is being widely criticized as a confusing conceptual framework at best and a force that has totally undermined women’s rights at worst. AWID chose to put together this issue in order to stimulate debate on how gender mainstreaming is understood, its impact and what we need to do about it. At this moment in history there is a growing clamor in women’s movements for us to rethink our strategies in order to put all women’s rights back on national and global agendas. We therefore asked four dynamic AWID members, all engaged with gender mainstreaming (and its effects) on a daily basis but in very different ways and places, to write their honest opinions about what has gone wrong. We then shared their candid views amongst them and had them respond to what their colleagues wrote. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    286125

    We, the women: the United Nations, feminism and economic justice.

    Randriamaro Z

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov. [12] p. (Spotlight No. 2)

    The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    055213

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  4. 4
    049402

    Plan of action for the eradication of harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa.

    Inter-African Committee [IAC]

    [Unpublished] 1987. 14 p.

    The traditional and harmful practices such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing, and unprotected delivery continue to be the reality for women in many African nations. These harmful traditional practices frequently result in permanent physical, psychological, and emotional changes for women, at times even death, yet little progress has been realized in abolishing these practices. At the Regional Seminar of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, held in Ethiopia during April 1987, guidelines were drawn by which national governments and local bodies along with international and regional organizations might take action to protect women from these unnecessary hazardous traditional practices. These guidelines constitute this "Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa." The plan should be implemented within a decade. These guidelines include both shortterm and longterm strategies. Actions to be taken in terms of the organizational machinery are outlined, covering both the national and regional levels and including special support and the use of the mass media. Guidelines are included for action to be taken in regard to childhood marriage and early pregnancy. These cover the areas of education -- both formal and nonformal -- measures to improve socioeconomic status and health, and enacting laws against childhood marriage and rape. In the area of female circumcision, the short term goal is to create awareness of the adverse medical, psychological, social and economic implications of female circumcision. The time frame for this goal is 24 months. The longterm goal is to eradicate female circumcision by 2000 and to restore dignity and respect to women and to raise their status in society. Also outlined are actions to be taken in terms of food prohibitions which affect mostly women and children, child spacing and delivery practices, and legislative and administrative measures. Women in the African region have a critical role to play both in the development of their countries and in the solution of problems arising from the practice of harmful traditions.
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  5. 5
    137192

    The United Nations Decade for Women and beyond.

    Moghadam VM

    In: Women in the Third World: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist. New York, New York, Garland Publishing, 1998. 477-85. (Garland Reference Library of Social Science Vol. 760)

    After an introduction that describes the UN Decade for Women (1976-85) as a catalyst to development of the global women's movement, this essay reviews the legal instruments and world conferences that led up to the Decade for Women. Selected conventions of concern to women from 1949 are tabulated to illustrate the number of ratifications received as of September 1993, and eight milestones in the UN effort to advance women are listed. The discussion then focuses on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, on the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies, and on the Fourth World Conference on Women and its Platform for Action. The next section of the essay describes the feminist networking that has flourished since the first women's conference in 1975 and received enough encouragement at the second conference in 1985 to spawn a global feminist movement. The essay continues with a review of the status of academic research into gender issues and of shifting policy in the UN system and other donor agencies as a result of adoption of a "Women in Development" approach. The essay then reviews the UN's 1994 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development to illuminate the role of women in a changing global economy and covers UN publications that seek to explicate women's positions in various regions in the 1990s. The essay concludes that the UN Decade for Women helped create common ground between activists in the North and the South, fostered networking, legitimized activities to promote women's rights, and inspired the UN to take action to advance women within its system.
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  6. 6
    080363

    The World Bank atlas. 25th anniversary edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 36 p.

    This atlas presents social, economic, and environmental statistics for 200 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. The following social/demographic indices are presented: population growth rate, 1980-1991; under-5 mortality rate, 1991; daily calorie supply/capita, 1989; illiteracy rate, 1990; and female labor force, 1991. GNP/capita, 1991; GNP/capita growth rate, 1980-91; and shares of agriculture, exports, and investment in GDP in 1991 comprise the economic data. Finally, GDP output/kilogram energy used, 1990; annual water use and annual water use/capita, 1970-87; forest coverage, 1989; and change in forest coverage, 1980-89, are presented as economic indicators. All figures are reported in color graphic format. Technical notes and World Bank structure and functions are discussed in closing sections. The text also cautions that the differing statistical systems and data collection methods and capabilities employed internationally demand that caution be taken against directly comparing statistical coverages and definitions.
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  7. 7
    055432

    Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

    Thahane TT

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.

    There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.
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  8. 8
    047128

    It's our move now: a community action guide to the UN Nairobi forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women.

    Sandler J

    New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Centre, 1987 Sep. vi, 112 p.

    The document Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (also referred to as the FLS document) reflects a commitment on the part of governments to work to improve women's status through legislative, social, and economic reforms. The document stresses the full participation of women in all areas of society. It further emphasizes the close relationship between the 3 goals of the United Nations Decade for Women--equality, peace, and development. It is essential, however, that women's organizations take responsibility for monitoring government compliance with the principles of the FLS. This community action guide was prepared to increase awareness of the existence of the FLS document and to help women develop campaigns for pressuring their governments to enforce the recommendations they agreed to at the Nairobi World Conference. Although the FLS document covers 100s of issues important to women's lives, this action guide focuses on 13 issue: decision making, education and training, employment, energy and the environment, exploitation of women, food and water, health, housing and transport, legal rights, media and communications, migrants and refugees, peace, and young and old women. For each issue, activities are suggested that can encourage fundamental social change.
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  9. 9
    034916

    Breastfeeding--a life-saver in the Third World.

    Arton M

    MIDWIVES CHRONICLE. 1985 Jul; 98(1170):200-1.

    At the April meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO), experts in occupational health concluded that there is no evidence to justify the exclusion of women from any type of employment. Yet, they simultaneously underscored the need for conditions in places of work to be adapted to women, and in particular to those women employed in manual work, whether agriculture or manufacture. This was WHO's 1st meeting on the subject of health and the working woman. According to the experts, anatomical and physiological differences between men and women should not limit job opportunities. As more and more women enter the work force, machines need to be redesigned to take into account the characteristics of working women. In industries where strength is a requirement, e.g., mining, a certain level of body strength and size should be established and applied to both sexes. Also recommended were measures to protect women of childbearing age, who form the majority of women in the work force, against the hazards of chemicals -- gases, lead, solder fumes, sterilizing agents, pesticides -- and other threats to health deriving from the work places. Chemicals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body could lead to mutagenicity, not only of women but also of men. In cases where a woman has conceived, mutagenicity could mean fetal death, or, where damage is done to sperm or ovum, lead to congenital malformation and to leukemia in newborns. Solvents so absorbed could appear in breast milk, thus poisoning the baby. Ionizing radiation, used in several industrial operations, also has been linked to breast cancer. As women increasingly take jobs that once used to be done solely by men, more needs to be known about the hazards of their health and of the psychosocial implications of long working hours. The following were included among recommendations made to increase knowledge and to protect health: that epidemiological studies be conducted in the risk of working women as well as more research on the effects of chemicals on pregnant workers; that working women be allowed to breastfeed children for at least 6 months at facilities set up at work places; and that information and health education programs be carried out to alert women against occupational health hazards.
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  10. 10
    200168

    Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.

    This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
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  11. 11
    038090

    The role of women managers in family planning and population programs.

    Sadik N

    Washington, D.C., Centre for Development and Population Activities, 1986 Apr. 14 p. (CEDPA Tenth Anniversary Lecture Series)

    This discussion of the role of women managers in family planning and population programs begins with an overview of the participation of women in development and population. It then directs attention to the need for women in management, increasing women's role in development programs, and changing attitudes about women's roles. 1 of the major achievements of the Decade for Women has been the recognition by most governments of the need to integrate women more fully into the process of national socioeconomic development. More and more governments are making a concerted effort to increase the participation of women and to integrate them into development. An area in which opportunities for women have not increased as much as they could is in management. The role and involvement of women in population and family planning are particularly important. Family planning programs in many areas of the world are directed to women, involve women, and are utilized by women, yet women are not in the policy-making or management position, deciding what should be done for them. In management, the 5 basic concerns are authority to make decisions, communication within organizations, the opportunity to introduce change, the productivity of the operation, and staff morale. The most important positions for women managers are at the policy-making and decision-making levels, but few women are at those levels in most developing country programs. Women's knowledge of local customs, norms, and needs can be used in designing programs and in selecting methods and services. Many programs now are designed, and family planning methods selected, without a clear understanding of the local situations or local customs. Women managers have the responsibility to educate others about how to design, implement, and evaluate programs and projects that are sensitive to the needs of women. Thus, the family planning sector in particular must involve women in all stages and levels of program design and implementation. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) developed some guidelines on women, population, and development following the 1975 conference in Mexico inaugrating International Women's Year. The guidelines call for special attention to the needs and concerns of women and for participation of women in all stages and aspects of the UNFPA program. Since 1984, UNFPA has been examining how it can address the involvement of women in population programs and ways to improve the role and status of women. It tires to suppport projects in 2 major categories: projects aimed directly at improving the role and status of women by increasing their access to educational training and skills development and their participation in the community; and activities aimed at increasing the participation of women in all UNFPA-supported projects, which must be designed with consideration to the needs and concerns of women.
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  12. 12
    035613

    The United Nations Development Programme and women in development. Background brief.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.

    The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
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  13. 13
    032626

    Planned Parenthood and Women's Development. Experiences from Africa: Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho and Mauritius.

    Nturibi DN

    Nairobi, Kenya, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Regional Office, 1985. [5], 54 p.

    This report, prepared as part of International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) program, analyzes selected program projects in Kenya, Mauritius, Lesotho, and Ghana. Projects were in the areas of income generation, community service provision, skill training, health education, and community issues. In all, over 40 projects have been assisted in Africa since the PPWD program was begun in 1977. Information on these projects, their activities, impact, and future needs is presented in tabular form. Members of the women's groups described are becoming outspoken advocates of family planning. Those who have limited their family size claimed to have more time to devote to self and family. Groups that have achieved high levels of acceptance of family planning methods attribute their success to the linkage of family planning and maternal-child health, family economics, nutrition, education, and future prospects. Community-based distribution of nonclinical contraceptives is viewed as a logical outgrowth of women's projects, and many group members are willing to be trained as volunteer motivators. In cases where PPWD funding periods have ended, Family Planning Associations have continued to support projects from their own resources. This is an encouraging trend, since the continuation and expansion of PPWD projects depends on groups being helped to become self-reliant, to seek government support for services, to develop strong leadership, and to link up with development plans for their areas. Revolving funds, rather than group grants, should be encouraged to extend the benefits of limited funding to more groups. Overall, the PPWD program has taken in Africa, and demands for expansion and further funding can be anticipated. It is important that the family planning objective remain central in these projects.
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  14. 14
    033848

    Population change and development in the ECWA region

    Caldwell P; Caldwell JC

    In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)

    This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.
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  15. 15
    031334

    Protection of working mothers: an ILO global survey (1964-84).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.

    This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
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  16. 16
    031823

    Improving statistics on women.

    Vanek J; Johnston R; Seltzer W

    Populi. 1985; 12(2):57-66.

    The UN Statistical Office is endeavoring to improve the collection and analysis of statistical information on women. Accurate statistical information is a prerequisite for assessing the current status of sexual inequality in the world and for monitoring responses to policies aimed at removing sexual inequalities. The Statistical Office in conjunction with several other UN agencies is 1) seeking to improve methods of collecting and analyzing information on women, 2) developing a computerized data base for statistical information on women at the international level, 3) conducting workshops for researchers and users of statistical in formation on women, and 4) helping countries develop systems for collecting relevant information. The Office publishes 3 documents on methodological problems. The 1st document, "Sex-based Stereotypes, Sex Biases and National Data System," identifies cultural factors which impede information gathering on women and suggests strategies for overcoming these obstacles. The 2nd publication, "Compiling Social Indicators on the Situation of Women," describes available data on women, discusses how this data can be most effectively used, and identifies indicators which can be developed from the available data. The 3rd document, "Methods for Statistics and Indicators on the Situation of Women," describes and evaluates the concepts and methods currently used in collecting and a analyzing information on women and makes a series of recommendations for improving the collection of data on women. In 1984, the Office began developing a data base for statistical information on women. At the present time, the data is available in a form which can be appropriately utilized only by individuals with sophisticated statistical skills. The information will eventually be available on diskettes. The Office is helping to develop workshops for the dual purpose of informing researchers about the information needs of planners and of teaching potential users, unfamiliar with statistical techniques, how to interpret and effectively use statistical information on women. The 1st workshop was held in early 1985 for participants from 11 English-speaking countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. A 2nd conference of Portuguese-speaking Africa countries is currently being organized, and workshops in other developing regions are anticipated. The UN helps countries develop census and registration systems and expand their survey capabilities. Although the original goal of these activities was not to collect data on women, efforts are now being made to ensure that data collecting instruments include a component for eliciting information on women. The Statistical Office's activities are guided by recommendations made by experts at a UN-sponsored meeting held in New York in 1983. These recommendations called for 1) methodological improvements, 2) the use of available data to develop indicators women's situation at the national and international level, 3) increased interaction between data collectors and data users, and 4) improved data collection of information on women at the national level. The Office has made considerable progress in pursuing these goals, but much remains to be done.
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  17. 17
    031396

    The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects

    Oppong C

    In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.

    There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
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  18. 18
    030193

    Women in health and development: the view from the Americas.

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):249-55.

    This article highlights the central features of the 5-Year Regional Plan of Action on Women in Health and Development, adopted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1981. Although the Plan does not mandate specific actions, it encourages certain activities and establishes an annual reporting system concerning these activities. The Plan recognizes that women's health depends upon numerous factors outside of medicine, including women's employment, education, social status, and accepted roles, access to economic resources, and political power. The low status of women is reinforced by the sexual double standard that makes women responsible for the reproductive process yet denies them the right to control that process. The Plan advocates an incremental approach, in which projects 1st focus on priority areas and groups and then expand to provide more general benefits. Programs exclusively for women are not advocated; encouraged, instead, is the integration of women's health and development activities into the mainstream of general activities promoting health. Among the areas targeted for action are the collection of statistics on women's health, women's nutritional problems, environmental health, maternal-child health services, screening for breast and cervical cancer, and family planning . Community participation is proposed as a good vehicle for local action and an essential tool in the campaign for health for all. Efforts must be made to enlist women's support in identifying community needs, planning health actions, selecting appropriate resources and personnel, establishing and administering health services, and evaluating the results. Overall, the Plan provides a solid basis upon which health authorities of the Americas can build.
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  19. 19
    029780

    Since Mexico '75: a decade of progress?

    Reid EA

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; (4):76-9.

    The International Women's Year (IWY) Conference in 1975 was the first opportunity for dialogue between 2 important emerging movements: the feminist movement and the movement to integrate women and development. The women and development movement began at about the same time as the feminist movement. By 1970 the full integration of women in the total development effort was adopted as an objective of the International Development Strategy for the Second Development Decade. In 1974 the women and development movement achieved a minor but significant recognition in US policy. The US foreign Assistance Act was amended to require "inter alia" US representatives in international agencies to encourage and promote the integration of women into national economies. The dialogue of the 2 movements at the IWY Conference, and its associated nongovernmental Tribune was electric. Feminists began to appreciate that their movement was only 1 part of a global women's movement, and they started to consider their list of basic demands as geopolitically specific and to realize and accept that elsewhere the list might include access to land, food prices, and many other issues. Feminism offered those concerned with women and development a holistic approach to changing women's lives, aimed at changing all facets of oppression and not just, for example, to increase access to education or to create greater economic independences. The conference provided a turning point for both movements by legitimizing them and by providing the impetus and the networks for a worldwide movement. The dialogue also produced a conference document, the Declaration of Mexico, 1975. Apart from the adoption of this Declaration and a World Plan of Action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year, several important decisions were made at the Mexico City Conference. It was decided to establish 1975-85 as the UN Decade for Women. This decision directed some of the energy generated by the Conference towards ensuring continuing international debate and action. A 2nd important initiative arising from the IWY Conference was the creation of the Voluntary Fund for the Decade for Women (VFDW) to provide financial and technical assistance to women. A Mid-Decade Conference was held in July 1980 in Copenhagen and adopted a Program of Action for the Second Half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. The task in preparation for the 1985 Review and Appraisal Conference for the end of the Decade for Women is to find a better instrument for assisting national governments and others to understand how to go about determining what problems women face in their countries and appropriate and effective means of overcoming them.
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  20. 20
    029774

    Women in national planning: false expectations.

    Mohammadi P

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.

    A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
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  21. 21
    029773

    On the road to Nairobi '85.

    Shahani LR

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:85-6.

    The Secretary General of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women discussed preparations for the conference, which will be held in Nairobi in July 1985, and made a special plea for the continued support of the conference's goals by the Arab parliamentarians. The Nairobi conference is an outgrowth of the 1975 World Conference of the International Women's Year and of the 1980 World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace. The 1975 conference raised the consciousness of the world in reference to women's role in development, and the 1980 conference provided a plan of action for integrating women in the development process. The task of the 1985 conference is to assess the accomplishments of the past 10 years and to identify strategies for the future. 1 of the documents which will be discussed at the conference is the UN's world survey of the role of women in development. In preparation for the conference the secretariat is preparing a report on women and children living under racist regimes in South Africa and another on women and children living in occupied Arab territories. Priorities identified by the conference's preparatory body include the need 1) to promote equality in international economic relations, 2) to reduce international tensions, and 3) to address the needs of poor, rural, abused, elderly women and the needs of women residing in areas of armed conflict. The preparatory body also expressed the view that the goals of equality, development and peace should be given equal priority. The participants at the conference should identify the ways in which women can most effectively continue their struggle to create conditions conducive to peace, ensure that the provisions of the Covention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women are implemented, and consider ways in which women can be further integrated into the development process. The nongovernment forum, which will convene a meeting in Nairobi just prior to the opening of the world conference, is likely to provide innovative suggestions for the consideration of the participants at the conference. Meanwhile all nations, and especially the Arab nations, are called on to promote the role women in their own nations and to work out differences within and between governments in the many preliminary meetings which will precede the conference. These efforts will ensure that the participants come together in Nairobi in a spirit of cooperation.
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  22. 22
    028827

    Sex differentials in mortality.

    Lopez AD

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(5):217-24.

    As part of its regional strategy for attaining health for all, the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region seeks to reduce sex differentials in mortality. In developing countries, the health consequences of social, economic, and cultural discrimination against females have produced a higher mortality rate among females than males. In contrast, there is a trend toward increasing excess male mortality in the developed countries. The sex differential in mortality arises from 2 broad groups of causes: genetic-biological and enivronmental. In high mortality countries, environmental factors may reduce or cancel out the biological advantages that women enjoy over men. As mortality is reduced through improved nutrition, public health measures, and better health care and education, women's environmental disadvantage is reduced and genetic-biological factors may increase the female life span faster than that of males. In the 3rd phase of this process, life style factors (e.g. alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking) may become increasingly detrimental to male health and survival, leading female mortality to decline at a faster pace than that of males. Although males appear to have adapted less well than women to the stresses of modernization, there has been a trend toward high risk behavior patterns among women too as a result of the changing female role. Prospects for the future trend of sex differentials in developed societies depend largely on developments in 2 areas: the effective treatment of degenerative and chronic diseases, which dominate the cause-of-death structure in these societies; and prevention through health education and encouragement of changes in personal behavior and life style. The challenge for women is to resist pressures to adopt a hazardous life style (e.g. smoking) that might offset the benefits of their improved social status.
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  23. 23
    027559

    Interview: Ms. Mary Chinery-Hesse on: women in development.

    Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):13-6.

    In the context of an interview, the role of women in development is discussed. Despite the fact that women in Africa have the primary responsiblity of carrying out the daily agricultural tasks involved in planting, tending, harvesting, and marketing, men are the target of most development programs. This inconsistency is attributable to a variety of cultural and social factors. For example, the fruits of agriculture are culturally defined as belonging to the men, and men, therefore, make the decisions about how the proceeds from farming are to be spent. Factors such as this reduce the visibility of women's major contribution to agricultural production. Recent socioeconomic and demographic changes have altered the role of women in African societies in a number of ways. Tribal structures have broken down and traditional sex rules have been disrupted. Subsistence patterns have also been disrupted, and parents now realize that they must limit family size in order to provide adequately for their children. Increased access to family planning is helping these parents reduce family size. The high proportion of young people in the population strains many support facilities and increases hardships for women. The greatest achievement for women in the past decade is the increased recognition given to their contribution in development. Many African governments have created commissions and committees charged with the task of formulating policies and programs to integrate women in development activities. The UN Development Program (UNDP) has helped upgrade the status of women by funding many projects aimed at improving conditions for women. The UNDP provides funds for maternal and child health programs, projects aimed at improving water supplies, and projects aimed at generating income for women. In addition, UNDP is helping to develop effective strategies for integrating women in development planning. Communication plays an important role in enhancing the position of women in Africa. Public knowledge of women's problems and needs has increased, and many misconceptions about the role of women have been corrected.
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  24. 24
    025380

    Statistics on children in UNICEF countries.

    UNICEF

    New York, UNICEF, 1984 May. 280 p.

    The data in this set of 135 country profiles for 1981 are made up from 9 major sources and cover the countries and territories with which the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) cooperates. In terms of infant morttality, countries are divided into 5 infant mortality groups: a very high infant mortality (a) group of countries, with a 1981 infant mortality rate (IMR) estimate of 150 (rounded) or more deaths per 1000 live births; a very high infant mortality (b) group of countries with a 1981 IMR estimate between 110 (rounded) and 140 (rounded); a high infant mortality group of a middle infant mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of between 26 and 50 (rounded); and a low infnat mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of 25 or less. For each country data are also presented on nutrition, demographic, education, and economic indicators.
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  25. 25
    024733

    IPPF plan 1985-87. Adopted by the Member's Assembly, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 26 p.

    This 3-year plan describes how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) intends to pursue the common goals of its membership: guide and encourage program development at all levels; indicate IPPF international strategies which support the work of Family Planning Associations (FPAs); and provide a statement to the outside world of IPPF's contribution to family planning during the plan period. The Plan has 7 Action Areas which reflect IPPF's overall priorities: the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; coverage and quality of family planning services; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male involvement in family planning; and resource development. Within each Action Area, the discussion suggests national strategies by which FPAs can achieve their objectives, while international strategies identify activities through which volunteers and staff can carry out their roles at the international and regional level. Action Area 1 outlines measures to carry out IPPF's basic commitment to support the efforts of FPAs in their national environments and describes how IPPF intends to play its full part as an international federation of voluntary family planning organizations. Continued efforts are needed thoughout the Federation to increase understanding of the pioneering role of FPAs and IPPF in advancing family planning as part of overall development and social change. The objectives of Action Area 1 -- the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning -- are to improve FPA program effectiveness, to strengthen the contribution of volunteers to planned parenthood; to broaden community participation in family planning; and to intensify understanding of the role of nongovernmental organizations in family planning. The objectives of Action Area II are to increase adherence to family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to the exercise of the human right to family planning, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people and development, resources, and the environment. Objectives of the remaining 5 Action Areas include: ensure greater availability and accessibility of family planning services; raise and maintain standards of family planning services and increase their acceptability; improve and expand the education components of family planning programs; improve and extend family life education and counseling activities for young people; improve and expand efforts at the community level to intergrate family planning with women's development; increase male contraceptive practice; and focus effort on meeting unmet need.
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