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  1. 1

    Women and men together for HIV / AIDS prevention. Literacy, gender and HIV / AIDS.

    Aksornkool N

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2005. 48 p.

    HIV/AIDS has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world, particularly in Southern Africa. To curb its spread, political leaders as well as health care and development specialists and practitioners have made concerted efforts to generate awareness and introduce education relating to this disease. Nevertheless, despite the abundance and availability of educational programmes aimed at the general public on HIV/AIDS, people in poor countries are dying faster than ever before, especially in Southern Africa. This puzzle leaves observers asking questions, such as "Why is this happening?", "Why has the infection rate increased?", "Are the educational materials reaching the right people?", "Are they affecting people who are at greatest risk?", "What is missing or wrong with them?", and "Where are the information gaps?". (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Engendering development through gender equality in rights, resources, and voice. Summary.

    King EM; Mason AD

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)

    This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Afghan women's plight showing improvement.

    POPLINE. 2003 Mar-Apr; 25:2.

    A monumental effort by UNICEF and Afghanistan's interim administration in 2002 succeeded in enrolling one million girls - out of 3 million students - in classes last year. But Bellamy said those numbers were still unacceptably low. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Three. Population education in literacy and continuing education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 115 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    Workshops were conducted in 1989 and 1991 in Indonesia and Pakistan to discuss the integration of population education into primary school curricula and into continuing education and literacy programs. This document provides a summary of prototype materials for integration of population messages in nonformal education. On-site visits were conducted in the rural villages of Sinar Bakti and Sari Harapan in the eastern district of Lembang, and 24 semi-literate persons were interviewed on demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, practices in family planning, problems and solutions, and aspirations. Workshop participants drafted materials with the help of resource persons, and 1 flip chart, 1 chart, and 2 booklets were field-tested. The core messages were that mother and child health care promotes family welfare; there is a right age for marriage; children can be spaced; women should be allowed to obtain a higher education; educated mothers add to family quality of life; women's groups can be effective; and rapid population growth leads to water shortages. Each of these messages for semi-literates is further differentiated by format, specific objectives, materials, messages and submessages. For example, a flip chart with 11 pictures is developed for stimulating discussion on the benefits of improving women's educational status. The instructions for facilitators are to direct learners to study the pictures and read the text and then direct questions about the messages in the pictures. Learners are expected to explain the pictures and text and draw conclusions. The learning materials from Pakistan were developed based on a needs assessment approach. Interviewers visited houses and asked for knowledge and attitudes on messages about small family size and social welfare, the right marriage age, responsible parenthood, population and development, reorientation of population-related beliefs and values, and enhancement of the status of women. The results of the inquiries are given. An example of these issues is represented in teaching materials for reorienting beliefs on the right marriage age. The target would be out-of-school youths and adults. The focus would be on how 1) early marriage affects the health of the mother and child, and 2) young mothers are not mentally prepared for the consequences of frequent pregnancies. A puppet show is provided as well as a guide for facilitators of discussion.
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  5. 5

    Advocating for education of the Muslim girls in South Asia.

    Ahmad JS

    PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):10-2.

    This article presents advocacy strategies for helping to increase the literacy rate among Muslim girls in South Central Asia. Data from UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) indicated that in 1995 only 15% of female in Afghanistan were literate; in Bangladesh, the percentage was a little over 26%. In India, the female literacy rate stood at about 38%; in Pakistan it stood at just over 24%. In fact, only half of the total number of school-aged children in South Asia were enrolled in school, and 42% dropped out by grade 5. The reasons for this high rate of dropout were poor quality education, poverty, child labor, (in the case of girls) taking care of younger siblings, household chores, and early marriage. In response to this problem, the UNFPA developed an advocacy strategy that focused on three important approaches--1) building coalitions with like-minded NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and institutions, 2) effective use of the mass media dependent on developing excellent relationships with the media s key representatives, and 3) working directly with communities. The six major steps in the communication strategy may be applied to an advocacy strategy according to a method similar to that employed in IEC strategy planning. These steps are as follows: 1) data gathering and analysis, 2) the segmenting of the target audience, 3) the formulation of specific objectives, 4) the formulation of an action plan or management plan, 5) the creation of methods and channels of communication, and 6) monitoring and evaluation. Although the advocacy campaign issues have been addressed, the implementation of these strategies still depends on government support and participation of NGOs.
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  6. 6

    [Resolution No.] 47/95. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution calls for an improved pace in the implementation of the Strategies because the cost of failing to implement the Strategies would include slowed economic and social development, inadequate use of human resources, and reduced progress. Thus, governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are urged to implement the recommendations, and member states are asked to give priority to programs which improve women's employment, health, and education (especially literacy). The central role of the Commission on the Status of Women is reaffirmed, and the Commission is asked to pay particular attention to women in the least developed countries. Other issues which require urgent attention include promoting the total integration of women in the development process and redressing socioeconomic inequities at the national and international levels. The Secretary-General is asked to perform specific tasks including the continued updating of the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development."
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  7. 7

    Women: challenges to the year 2000.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. [3], 96 p.

    A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
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  8. 8

    Girls and schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: from analysis to action.

    Odaga A; Heneveld W

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xi, 112 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 298; Africa Technical Department Series)

    A review of the literature indicates that the access of girls and women to education in sub-Saharan Africa is being hindered by socioeconomic and cultural factors, aspects of the school environment, and political and institutional forces. Among these factors are direct and opportunity costs, parental attitudes toward investments in female schooling, social class, child labor demands, an emphasis on the woman's roles as wife and mother, scheduling of initiation ceremonies, Islamic beliefs, teachers' negative attitudes about girls' learning potential, early pregnancy, sexual harassment, and the overall low status of women. Strategies with the potential to increase female participation in education include: more flexible and efficient use of teacher and school resources to increase supply; increases in the number of female teachers, especially in science and mathematics; improvements in teachers' gender-stereotyped attitudes; widened curriculum choices for girls; introduction of simple technological innovations that reduce the demand for child labor; increased coverage through initiatives with nongovernmental organizations, religious groups, and families; and review of fiscal and administrative policies that restrict female educational and employment opportunities. Given the complexities of issues related to female education, multiple simultaneous interventions on both the supply and demand sides may be required. Also needed are stronger linkages between research findings, policy formulation, and program design and implementation.
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  9. 9

    The world's women 1970-1990: trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)

    5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
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  10. 10

    UNICEF annual report 1991.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1991. 60 p.

    The 1991 UNICEF annual report contains an introduction written by the Executive Director, James P. Grant. In it he outlines the goals of the World Summit for Children which include: initiatives to save an additional 50 million children, reduce childhood malnutrition by 50%, reduce female illiteracy by 50% , and eradicate polio and guinea worm from the planet. The report discusses the programs conducted during 1991 including: the World Summit for Children, child survival and development, basic education, water supply and sanitation, sustainable development, urban basic services, childhood disability, women in development, social mobilization, emergency relief, monitoring and evaluation, inter-agency cooperation. The report also outlines UNICEF's external relations, resources, and provides several profiles including Africa's AIDS orphans. Income for 1990 totaled US$821 million for 1990, and estimated at US$858 million for 1991. Expenditures for 1989 were US$633 million, US$738 million for 1990, and estimated at US$847 million for 1991.
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  11. 11

    Growth monitoring in Bangladesh: a hope for child survival.

    Talukder MQ

    IN TOUCH 1987 Dec; 11(85):21-4.

    This paper discusses Bangladesh's overwhelming social, economic, and health obstacles to improving child health, and stands behind the UNICEF GOBI-FFF strategy as a low-cost alternative for rapid implementation. GOBI-FFF is an acronym for growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, immunization, food supplements for infants, female education, and family spacing. Specifically, the article endorses growth monitoring with the National Nutrition Council child health and nutrition card. The growth chart should be seen as an approach for the promotion of good health, prevention of malnutrition and infectious disease, and treatment of minor illnesses. The card has been designed for use among children 0-5 years of age at the primary health care level. The card includes messages and information on child health and nutrition. The actual process of growth monitoring requires a growth chart, growth chart manual, and a weighing scale. The paper describes growth measurement as the most scientifically effective measure of a child's nutrition and overall health. It is a simple and inexpensive manner of monitoring child health and nutritional status in the community.
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  12. 12

    International scientific cooperation for maternal and child health.

    Nightingale EO; Hamburg DA; Mortimer AM

    In: Issues in contemporary international health, edited by Thomas A. Lambo and Stacey B. Day. New York, New York, Plenum Medical Book Company, 1990. 113-33.

    The causes of mortality and disability in the world are reviewed, and the 4 most important mechanisms for promoting maternal and child health are proposed: female literacy, family planning, community-based efforts and global strategies for international cooperation. The health needs of women, children and adolescents, who make up the majority and the most vulnerable segment of the population, must be met. Malnutrition is the single most important cause of health problems through adult life, and affects 20 million children in Africa alone. Statistics are cited for infant mortality, vaccine-preventable diseases, diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections, infant mortality and maternal mortality. The key determinant of infant survival is female literacy. Existing scientific cooperation is the closet thing we have to a global international community. An example of applied scientific solutions to health care is the risk approach in maternal health care. 2 strategies of scientific cooperation have emerged: the international center model in a country or region to address a specific problem, and the task force model, as used effectively by WHO, UNICEF, and the Task Force for Child Survival. Research topics on health in developing countries are listed that could be tackled by universities and scientific networks, e.g. scientific research is lacking on how to make household hygiene effective in poor countries. A concerted global research effort and surveillance effort is needed for AIDS.
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  13. 13

    Equality, development, and peace: needs for the advancement of women.

    McLennan JC

    Washington, D.C., Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1990 Mar. [4] p. (Current Policy No. 1262)

    At the meeting of the 34th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), US representative Juliette C. McLennan discussed 8 areas of concern which touch on issues of equality, development, and peace. The issues raised by McLennan include: 1) Women's leadership roles must be increased at both national and international levels. Addressing these areas of concern is a significant step in implementing the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, which call on governments and political parties to increase participation of women in all areas of the government, including executive, legislative, and judicial branches. 2) Economic reform measures are necessary to ensure full participation of women in the development process. Lack of access to resources, credit, information, constrains women's productivity -- a problem oftentimes compounded by legislation that restricts property ownership by women. Measures to alleviate these situations will not only ensure greater equality, it will also increase productivity, having tapped the potential of women's labor. 3) Literacy is necessary to bring about women's economic development. 4) Efforts to protect the environment must include women as participants. 5) The safety of refugee women must be ensured. Women in refugee camps are subject to physical violence and sexual abuse. In order to remedy this situation, not only must they be protected from physical dangers, women must be given education and training necessary to return them to the productive sector. 6) The spread of AIDS among women must be addressed. 6) The prevalence of violence against women -- assault, rape, abduction -- must be stopped. Providing support centers and ensuring the prosecution of the perpetrators can make a contribution. 7) Considering the lack of attention paid to CSW's authority to handle confidential and nonconfidential communications concerning violations of women's rights, this aspect of the commission's mandate must be further defined in order to strengthen its ability.
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  14. 14

    Targeted interventions and infant mortality.

    Lovel H


    The main causes of infant mortality in 71% of the cases are diarrhea, measles, acute respiratory infection, and neonatal tetanus. A UN child survival strategy includes growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breast feeding, immunization, fertility, food and female literacy (GOBI-FFF). Previous research has shown a correlation between low levels of infant mortality and high levels of female literacy. Educated women are more likely to delay marriage, and childbearing. Child mortality is much higher for those born to women under 20 years old and also much higher for those born within 1 or 2 after the previous birth. Maternal mortality is also higher for mothers under 20 and with closely spaced births of 3 or more children. The majority of adults in developing countries have knowledge of family planning but teen pregnancy is a concern. Better nutrition during pregnancy would decrease infant deaths. Growth monitoring is another way to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. The difficulties are in the reluctance to adapt programs to local traditional methods of growth monitoring and going to direct recording scales. Immunization is estimated to have prevented over 3 million deaths from measles, tetanus, whooping cough and polio in 1984 alone. In spite of progress, only 50% of children in developing countries are immunized against diphtheria, pertussis, polio, and tetanus by the age of 1 year. these activities must be integrated into primary health care and community development projects to make better contact with people needing this service. oral rehydration therapy not only reduces mortality from diarrhea but can reduce morbidity by reducing the duration of the illness and by increasing the weight gain. Breast feeding has been shown in many studies to reduce the risk of deaths of infants. The promotion of breast feeding includes the issues of maternity leave, job security, and child care at the work place.
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  15. 15

    Report of the Seminar on the Role of Women in Social and Economic Development with Special Reference to Rural Development, Tashkent, USSR, 17-27 September 1987.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1988. iii, 43 p.

    The Seminar was attended by participants from China, India, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the USSR, and Viet Nam. The 1st substantive agenda item was an examination of the role of women in rural development in Asia and the Pacific. Most of the economic development has left the rural areas relatively untouched despite the fact that the 2 largest countries in Asia, China and India, are 80% and 75% rural. Women's traditional roles have been bound by a socioeconomic, political and cultural mind-set that restricted the realization of their full potential. Women work longer hours than men but have a higher mortality rate, due to high maternal mortality, and women constitute the majority of illiterates. 2 requirements for the integration of women into rural development are identified as collection of data on the situation of rural women and the inclusion of women in rural development planning. India's 6th 5-year plan had included a 3-fold strategy to improve women's education, employment and health; and these strategies were being continued in the 7th 5-year plan (1985-1990). Women's life expectancy grew from 31.7 years in 1951 to 51.2 years in 1981. Women have achieved a 40% share in wage employment, but only a 13% share in the Integrated Rural Development Program. In Nepal 96% of the female labor force is still employed in agriculture, and female literacy is only 18%. The 6th 5-year plan (1980-1985) contained a separate chapter on women's development, and the 7th plan (1985-1990) contains policies for advancing women's education and health. In Sri Lanka women have a literacy rate of 86%. However, agricultural development reforms have largely been targeted at men. The 1987 constitution of the Philippines guaranteed the equality of women, but rural women still work 14-17 hours a day in household and farm work, and in many areas female illiteracy is still 65%. In China, after the revolution, the laws which discriminated against women were abolished, and the economic reforms of the 1980s enabled rural women to become more productive both in agriculture and light industry. However, female infant mortality is still higher than male, women's rights of inheritance are still not guaranteed, and women have retained a sense of their own inferiority. In Viet Nam in 1945 land was redistributed to the peasants and subsequently collectivized. 65% of the agricultural labor force are women, and 28% of rural women are in managerial positions in the state farms and cooperatives. The Seminar reaffirmed its commitment to various global mandates on women and stressed the importance of the International Women's Congress in Moscow. The delegates then visited collective farms and factories, participated in the 60th anniversary celebration of the "Khudjum" campaign for the emancipation of women in Uzbekistan, and made a visit to Ferghana on the occasion of Mother's Glory Day, on which Mother Heroine medals were awarded to mothers who had reared at least 10 children. The Seminar then reconvened and adopted 69 resolutions to be proposed to governments concerning the integration of women into rural development policies.
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