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BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al
Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue.have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Integrated person-centered health care for all women during pregnancy: implementing World Health Organization recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Jun 27; 5(2):197-201.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 144 p.HIV is not only driven by gender inequality, but it also entrenches gender inequality, leaving women more vulnerable to its impact. Providing sexual and reproductive health interventions for women living with HIV that are grounded in principles of gender equality and human rights can have a positive impact on their quality of life; it is also a step towards long-term improved health status and equity.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Gender and Development Group, 2004 Nov.  p.This Operational Guide provides specific guidance to national HIV/AIDS program management teams, public-sector ministries, private sector entities, and non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) implementing World Bank-financed HIV/AIDS programs and projects, as well as the World Bank's operational staff who design these programs and projects. It provides concrete examples of the integration of gender concerns into all stages of project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The immediate objective is to provide the tools needed to identify and analyze gender-specific issues and concerns in HIV/AIDS programs and make appropriate provisions in HIV/AIDS operations to address these concerns. The ultimate goal of this Operational Guide is to enhance the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions by ensuring that the gender inequalities that underlie the epidemic are addressed. (excerpt)
Research Observer. 2007 Spring; 22(1):25-51.This article highlights the progress in building a knowledge base on effective ways to increase access to justice for women who have experienced gender-based violence, offer quality services to survivors, and reduce levels of gender-based violence. While recognizing the limited number of high-quality studies on program effectiveness, this review of the literature highlights emerging good practices. Much progress has recently been made in measuring gender-based violence, most notably through a World Health Organization multicountry study and Demographic and Health Surveys. Even so, country coverage is still limited, and much of the information from other data sources cannot be meaningfully compared because of differences in how intimate partner violence is measured and reported. The dearth of high-quality evaluations means that policy recommendations in the short run must be based on emerging evidence in developing economies (process evaluations, qualitative evaluations, and imperfectly designed impact evaluations) and on more rigorous impact evaluations from developed countries. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006.  p.Even in times of peace, it is usually women who look after children, the sick, the injured and the elderly. When emergencies strike, this burden of care can multiply. In many cases, women become the sole providers and caretakers for their households, and sometimes the families of others -- especially when men have been killed, injured or must leave their communities to fight or rebuild. During crisis and in refugee situations, women and girls become the ultimate humanitarian workers. They obtain food and fuel for their families, even when it is unsafe to do so. They are responsible for water collection, even when water systems have been destroyed and alternate sources are far away. They help to organize or rebuild schools. They protect the vulnerable and care for sick and disabled family members and neighbours. Women are also likely to take on additional tasks, including construction and other physical labour, and activities to generate income for their families. In many conflict zones, women's actions also help to bring about and maintain peace. Women care for orphaned children who might otherwise become combatants. They organize grass-roots campaigns, sometimes across borders, to call for an end to fighting. When the situation stabilizes, women work together to mend their torn communities. They help rebuild, restore traditions and customs, and repair relationships -- all while providing care for the next generation. (excerpt)
The second meeting of the Working Group for the Prevention and Treatment of Obstetric Fistula, Addis Ababa, 30 October -1 November, 2002.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 38 p.Much of the meeting was devoted to presentation of needs assessments from 12 African countries. Nine countries were surveyed by Engender Health; the African Medical and Research Foundation surveyed Kenya; and the Women’s Dignity Project assessed the situation in Tanzania. Dr. Catherine Hamlin and Ruth Kennedy also presented information about the situation in Ethiopia. The assessments provide a clear and informed base—for the first time—on which to build a realistic plan of action to combat fistula in the region. This information should also help to bring the tragedy of fistula out from under its shroud of shame and secrecy. We expect this will result in increased support for many of the best programmes already in place in Africa and in the creation of a regional network for fistula prevention and treatment. (excerpt)
Bulletin Économique et Social du Maroc. 2000; (159):21-24.According to the 1998 World Human Development Report (HDR), Morocco ranks 125th with a human development indicator (HDI) of 0.557 points. The indicator elements pertaining to life expectancy, adult literacy and schooling levels remain unchanged in the HDI, but the revenue indicator has improved. These important changes have armed this HDI with a more solid methodological base. With an average per capita revenue of 3,310 dollars (PPP), Morocco finds itself in the revenue segment that has undergone the most significant revision of the standardized value. In effect, although it is not found among the principal Arab countries which have successfully reduced deficits in terms of human development during the last two decades, Morocco has, however, successfully reduced them by 27%. The progress made by this country in terms of human development in the last decade can be seen in the struggle against poverty and is reinforced and consolidated by the commitment of the Head of State for the purpose of improving the living conditions of the poor. The struggle against poverty constitutes the fundamental goal of the UNDP, around which are centered most of the programs and projects whose implementation should contribute to promoting the necessary environment for poverty reduction and consequently, to improved human development. The strategy chosen for the UNDP's intervention is broken into two parts: one is to support strategies and policies in the struggle against poverty, and the other lies in local initiatives for validating these same policies. It targets the socio-geographic aspect of action, on the one hand, benefiting the most vulnerable social groups such as women, children, and girls in the poorest areas, and on the other hand, is directed at those geographic areas that are the most ill-favored in the rural world as well as urban outskirts. The process of integrating Morocco into a free trade zone with the European Union has required the implementation of reforms at the legal and institutional level to manage ever stiffer competition in the world market.
A decade of the United Nations' convention on the rights of the child: implications for child nutrition and for the conceptualization of norms and interventions in public-health nutrition.
Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug; 16(7-8):640-642.As we initiate the third millennium, we all must recognize that the goal of “health for all by the year 2000,” enunciated by the World Health Organization, fell far short of becoming a reality. The issue of human rights has emerged increasingly as a topic of public discourse, perhaps in proportion to the extent of their violation. More recently linked to this discussion has been that of food as a human right or nutrition as a human right. For the nutritional scientist, practitioner, or public-health professional, there is a documentary trail that guides us in these considerations. It begins with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proposed by the late Eleanor Roosevelt, and extends to its derivative covenant: the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The CRC was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N.) on November 20, 1989, and entered into force on September 2, 1990. In a matter of months, the force of this document will be entering its second decade. Like the segment of the population it proposes to represent and defend, it has had some growing pains to overcome. (excerpt)
Gender and Development. 2002 Mar; 10(1):60-8.As trafficking worldwide has become increasingly more sophisticated and widespread, some governments are implementing new legislation, hosting international conferences, and signing new and existing conventions. The UN and other Inter-Governmental Organizations are dedicating substantial resources to developing more effective solutions. However, the relative absence of government initiatives and assistance for trafficking victims, means that it is nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who have taken up the challenge of organizing locally, nationally, and internationally to advocate for and meet the needs of victims, despite their limited resources. This article provides an overview of NGO activity against trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. It is based on an exploratory study undertaken by the Change Anti-Trafficking Programme in 2001. The article explores why NGOs are well-placed to work with women victims of trafficking, and their responses to the growing phenomenon in countries of origin and destination. It presents a regional overview of NGO initiatives, and concludes by discussing some of the main obstacles faced by NGOs in combating trafficking for sexual exploitation, and women's and children's vulnerability to slavery-like practices. (author's)