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NewsCAP: The WHO releases Consolidated Guideline on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women Living with HIV.
American Journal of Nursing. 2018 Jul; 118(7):17.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
Elimination of violence against women: in search of solutions. WHO / FlGO Pre-Congress Workshop, 30 July - 31 July 1997.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Violence and Injury Prevention, 1999. 91 p. (WHO/HSC/PVI/99.2)Violence against women is present in most societies but it often goes unrecognised and unreported, and is accepted as part of the nature of things. Most violence against women takes place within families and the perpetrators are almost exclusively men, usually partners, ex-partners or other men known to the woman. Although reliable data on the prevalence of violence against women by their partners are scarce, especially in developing countries, a growing body of research confirms its pervasiveness. For example, 40 population-based quantitative studies, conducted in 24 countries on four continents, revealed that between 20% and 50% of the women interviewed reported that they had suffered physical violence from their male partners. In addition, surveys also indicate that at least one in five women suffer rape or attempted rape in their lifetimes. These and many other revealing statistics about the extent to which women are subjected to violence in different parts of the world, and about the factors that either put them at risk of such violence or protect them against it were discussed during the pre-congress workshop organised jointly by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The focus of the workshop was to explore ways that violence against women can be eliminated and how the health sector and organisations such as FIGO and WHO can contribute to this elimination. This emphasis on pro-active involvement rather than a mere passive description of the issue was reflected clearly by the title of the workshop and by the workshop's agenda, which included time for in-depth discussions in working groups on concrete activities that could be undertaken within the health care system to eliminate violence against women. (excerpt)
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. , vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.