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  1. 1

    Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.

    In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
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  2. 2

    Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)

    Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Towards an effective implementation of international norms to end violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Ertürk.

    Erturk Y

    [New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Dec 26. 24 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66)

    In section I, the report defines the mandate and methods of work of the Special Rapporteur. Section II describes the activities of the Special Rapporteur since she took over the mandate in August 2003. Reference is also made to the activities of the former Special Rapporteur from 2003, until the end of her tenure in July. Section III starts with an assessment of the developments of the past decade in the area of women's human rights and violence against women, and continues with a focus on violence against women, as it manifests within a broad spectrum from the domicile to the transnational arena, in order to capture the persistence of the old as well as the emergence of new sites and forms of violence. Within this context, emphasis is placed on the universality of violence against women, the multiplicity of its forms and the intersectionality of diverse kinds of discrimination against women and its linkage to a system of domination that is based on subordination and inequality. HIV/AIDS is highlighted as the single most devastating epidemic experienced in modern history and that embodies the intersectionality of diverse forms of discrimination. Owing to the magnitude of health, security, development and human rights problems associated with HIV/AIDS and its intricate interplay with violence against women, the Special Rapporteur intends to carry out extensive research on the issue for her annual report for 2005. Finally, section III of the present report elaborates on guidelines for developing strategies for the effective implementation of international standards to end violence against women at the national level and proposes an intervention strategy with three interrelated levels, consisting of the State, the community, and the individual woman. While the State is bound by international human rights law, it is suggested that the human rights discourse at the level of the community and individual women needs to be complemented by a culture and an empowerment discourse, respectively. Section IV contains the conclusions of the report, highlighting the issues raised throughout the report that require further research and analysis. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Elimination of violence against women. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/45.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR], 2003. 8 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/45)

    Reaffirming that discrimination on the basis of sex is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments, and that its elimination is an integral part of efforts towards the elimination of violence against women. Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Recalling all its previous resolutions on the elimination of violence against women, in particular its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint a special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    The UN global compact and substantive equality for women: Revealing a "well hidden" mandate.

    Kilgour MA

    Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jun; 28(4):751-773.

    The achievement of women's equality is an elusive goal, especially in developing economies, where states have been unable or unwilling to protect and promote women's human rights and gender equality. Many argue that globalisation has heightened gender inequality. One response to this crisis is the United Nations corporate citizenship initiative: the Global Compact. This paper argues that the Global Compact has a strong gender equality mandate, which has not been fulfilled. The paper advances a number of reasons why this may be the case, including the lack of women's participation at many levels, the pervasive nature of women's inequality and the fact it may not be in the interests of Global Compact signatories to address this inequality. Despite the limitations of this voluntary initiative, it does have some potential to effect positive change. However, unless the pervasive and continued violation of women's human rights is addressed by the Global Compact, the claim that it is a viable new form ofglobal governance for addressing major social and economic problems is severely weakened. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Challenging the margin: Gender equality and the UN reform process.

    Kettel B

    Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.

    In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
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  7. 7

    Statement at the Informal Interactive Hearings of the United Nations General Assembly by Geeta Rao Gupta, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), June 23, 2005.

    Gupta GR

    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 2005. 5 p.

    It is a tragic reality that in this, the 21st century, despite the progress made in economic development, women and girls in many parts of the world continue to suffer inequalities based on gender in health, education, and nutrition; face persistent constraints in access to economic and political opportunities; and continue to live lives that are marked by violence or the fear of violence not just in times of war but also in times of peace, not just within the home but also in the street. Yet, as a global community, we know, and have known for many decades, that freeing women from these disadvantages and injustices is fundamental to the fulfillment of their human rights and is critical for meeting the goals of economic and social development. In recognition of this important fact, each of you as members of this august General Assembly, in your shared vision of development, gave gender equality and the empowerment of women a prominent place among the eight goals listed as the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Equality for women highlighted at Economic and Social Council; ninety-nine texts adopted on a wide spectrum of issues - includes details of Council action.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3):[3] p..

    A wide range of texts aimed at promoting women's rights throughout the world was adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1990, held from 1 to 25 May in New York. Prominent among them was a set of recommendations and conclusions resulting from a recent UN evaluation, five years after the adoption of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women at the World Conference held in Kenya in 1985. Its general conclusion: progress in achieving equality for women had either slowed down or stopped. Declaring that "immediate steps should be taken to remove the most serious obstacles" to the Strategies and that the pace of its implementation should be improved in the crucial last decade of the twentieth century, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990/15 setting out recommendations and conclusions. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Equal pay, urban women problems discussed by Commission - UN Commission on the Status of Women, 38th session, Mar 7-18, 1994 - includes news of other developments pertaining to equal pay and equality in marriage.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[4] p..

    Equal pay for work of equal value, women in urban areas and measures to eradicate violence against women were among the issues dealt with by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-eighth session (7-18 March, New York). Being also the preparatory body for the Fourth world conference on Women in Beijing 1995, the commission's work focused on preparatory activities, in particular the drafting of the Platform for Action. In discussing priority themes--equality, development and peace--established for its thirty-seven through fortieth sessions, the Commission adopted 13 resolutions, many calling on Governments to urgently improve the situations of women around the world. "The road to Beijing must be paved with vision, commitment and a determination to harness the support of Governments to remove the remaining obstacles to the advancement of women", Gertrude Mongella, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary-General of the Fourth World Conference, told the 45-member Commission on 7 March. It has the task of organizing that conclave, which is set for September 1995. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Working within - women's rights.

    Flor P

    UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4):[3] p..

    While the creation of a legal framework which guarantees equal rights for women and men was always regarded as a primary prerequisite for gender equality; it turned out to be far from sufficient, since women and girls face a multitude of constraints imposed by society, not by law. For centuries, societies have created customary rules which, mostly on the basis of sex, class, place of birth, clan or family name, determine to a great extent what role an individual can play. These roles reflect an unwritten social contract within a society on who ought to do what, who rules, who wades, who cares for children, who decides public matters; in short, who occupies a certain space and position in society or in the home. Historically, socially constructed gender roles put women and girls at a disadvantage, denied them equal status with men, restricted their access to income, education and decision-making, and confined their sphere of influence to the home. Today's statistics document the consequences: 70 per cent of the world's poor are women, 2 out of 3 adult illiterates are female. Women are mostly excluded from politics and economic decision-making. Even in Western countries, women hold only approximately 15 per cent of parliamentary seats. Moreover, many women and girls continue to suffer from violence and systematic discrimination. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Beijing plus ten: an ambivalent record on gender justice.

    Molyneux M; Razavi S

    Development and Change. 2005; 36(6):983-1010.

    The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (the 'Beijing Conference') was a landmark in policy terms, setting a global policy framework to advance gender equality. Ten years after Beijing, in March 2005, the UN's Commission on the Status of Women presided over an intergovernmental meeting in New York to review the progress achieved on the commitments made in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. This 'Plus 10' event was decidedly low key. Its aim was not agenda setting but agenda confirming; not policy formulation but policy affirmation. Whether it proves to be part of an ongoing worldwide movement in support of gender equality, or whether it marks the decline of that process, is a question that many in international women's movements are asking. This article, drawing on research undertaken for the UNRISD report, Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, reflects on the ambivalent record of progress achieved by women over the last decades and considers how the policy environment has changed over the period since the high point of global women's movements. It examines how the changing international policy and political climate over this period has given rise to new issues and challenges for those active in global women's movements. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Gender mainstreaming in European municipalities.

    Gaspard F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Gender mainstreaming: an overview.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2002. [36] p.

    The mainstreaming strategy is implemented in somewhat different ways in relation to activities such as research, policy development, policy analysis, programme delivery, or technical assistance activities. The opportunities and processes are different for each area of work. For example, an important challenge and opportunity in technical assistance activities is to identify how gender dimensions are relevant and then establish a constructive dialogue with potential partners on gender equality issues; in defining a research project a critical concern is ensuring that conceptual frameworks and methodologies will capture the different and unequal situations of women and men. In addition, the mainstreaming strategy must be adapted to the particular subject under discussion. The analytic approach and questions asked must be appropriate to the specific concerns being addressed. Clearly, different questions must be asked to understand the gender equality implications of macroeconomic policy than are asked about policies related to small arms control. There is no set formula or blueprint that can be applied in every context. However, what is common to mainstreaming in all sectors or development issues is that a concern for gender equality is brought into the ‘mainstream’ of activities rather than dealt with as an ‘add-on’. The first steps in the mainstreaming strategy are the assessment of how and why gender differences and inequalities are relevant to the subject under discussion, identifying where there are opportunities to narrow these inequalities and deciding on the approach to be taken. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Domestic violence as a human rights issue. [La violencia doméstica como un problema de derechos humanos]

    Thomas DQ; Beasley ME

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1993 Feb; 15(1):36-62.

    Part I of this paper examines why domestic violence was not analyzed traditionally as a human rights issue. It discusses the three independent, though interrelated, changes that occurred to begin to make such an analysis possible: the expansion of the application of state responsibility; the recognition of domestic violence as widespread and largely unprocesuted (brought about by greater public and international recognition of the daily violence experienced by women); and, the understanding that the systematic, discriminatory non-prosecution of domestic violence constitutes a violation of the right to equal protection under international law. Part II describes the first practical application of this evolving approach, in Brazil, where the presence of a broad-based women's movement made it possible to collect the data necessary to support an analysis of the government's responsibility for domestic violence. Finally, Part III explores the value and limitations of the human rights approach to combating domestic violence. We conclude that the human rights approach can be a powerful tool to combat domestic violence, but that there are currently both practical and methodological limitations--in part related to the use of the equal protection framework to assign state responsibility for domestic violence--that are problematic and require further analysis to make the approach more effective. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Women's rights in the Universal Declaration.

    Morsink J

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1991 May; 13(2):229-256.

    The Charter of the United Nations forbids discrimination on the basis of "race, sex, language or religion." Some of the delegations involved in drafting the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights felt that this short list of four nondiscrimination items was enough and should be repeated in the Declaration. Others wanted to be more exhaustive. The matter was referred to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities. This commission recommended that the article in the Declaration state that "[e]veryone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind such as race, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property status, or national or social origin." Everything after "religion" was added to the Charter list. A few objections were raised, but nothing was deleted from the list. Instead, the two items of "color" and "birth" were added to the Sub-Commission's recommendation. Article 2 of the Declaration is thus an expansion of the Charter's mandate that the new world organization promote human rights for all without discrimination. This theme of nondiscrimination runs through all the deliberations about the Declaration, and whatever disagreements there were about the various items on the list were minor. There was complete agreement that the article on nondiscrimination was a keystone of the Declaration and a gateway to its universality. If we take away someone's race, sex, and opinions on various subjects, all information about his or her background, about birth and present economic status, what we have left is just a human being, one without frills. And the Declaration says that the human rights it proclaims belong to these kinds of stripped-down people, that is, to everyone, without exception. As Mr. Heywood, the Australian representative, said, "logically, discrimination was prohibited by the use in each article of the phrase 'every person' or 'everyone.'" That is why the prohibition against discrimination is not repeated- -as it well might have been--with each article, but is stated at the beginning and made applicable to "all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration." Given this opening prohibition against discrimination, there is, strictly speaking, no need for repetition. But that does not mean that the temptation was not there, especially in the case of sex-based discrimination. Nor does it mean that the final product--a litany of the words "everyone" and "no one"--was arrived at without struggle. For there was a struggle, especially in the case of women's rights. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    How to combat women's poverty?

    Africa Recovery. 1999 Sep; 13(2):[3] p..

    The fact that half of the world's population lives in poverty today, up from one-quarter 25 years ago, is an "inescapable blot" on the record of human progress, remarked UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his opening address before the 1999 session of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Poverty eradication was the overarching theme of the entire ECOSOC session, held in Geneva from 5- 30 July. The Secretary-General's report on "The role of employment and work in poverty eradication: the empowerment and advancement of women," provided the sub-theme for discussions during the ECOSOC session's opening (high-level) segment, held from 5-8 July. People living in sub-Saharan Africa are the most deeply mired in poverty, with incomes the furthest below the poverty line worldwide, observes Mr. Annan's report. Moreover, the number of absolute poor continues to rise while the "face of poverty" is changing: in the next century, a poor person will more likely be an unskilled female earning low wages and living in urban Africa or Latin America than a male small-holder living in rural Asia. Therefore, strategies designed to combat the discrimination and disadvantage faced by women "must be central to successful poverty reduction," the report says. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Nationalism and asylum: implications for women.

    Palmary I

    Agenda. 2003; (55):4-14.

    This article has attempted to show that both nationalist discourses and the asylum policy that they inform rely heavily on the notion of the public (men’s) sphere and the private (women’s) sphere as binary opposites. Although women’s movements have led to major changes in the asylum legislation and practice, these changes have yet to significantly challenge the public/private dichotomy on which the creation of additional gender guidelines to supplement asylum legislation rests. I would suggest that future feminist analyses need to challenge the binary of ‘typical dissident’ and ‘special woman’ if asylum legislation is to better serve women and to see all asylum cases as gendered ie recognise that men’s activities in times of conflict draw on and reinforce women’s assumed activities and vice versa. In order to do this, there is a need to challenge the universal constructions of refugees (and refugee women) and the consequences thereof rather than essentialising identities and reifying these same categories. It is necessary to continually and critically reflect on the ways in which legislation that operates at a national (and often universal) level will inevitably privilege some identities over others. Although the South African gender guidelines call for recognition of women’s varied roles, they (and indeed much refugee policy that targets women) espouse a universal humanism that recognises certain bases of difference, which is seen most clearly in the categorisation of possible kinds of women’s involvement into those activities that fall within the public realm of ‘typical political dissident’ and those that fall within the category of ‘special woman’s case’. It is within this universal, humanist approach that most refugee policy currently exists. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Women's empowerment, gender equality and the Millennium Development Goals: a WEDO information and action guide.

    Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO]

    New York, New York, WEDO, [2004]. [8] p.

    The United Nations has been a key forum for women’s advocacy. From the 1975 UN International Year on Women through the Decade on Women (1976-1985) and the global conferences and summits of the 1990s women participated actively to shape economic, social, and political development. In these settings advocates established strategic mechanisms, influenced resolutions and won crucial commitments to set a farreaching global policy agenda that recognizes gender equality and women’s empowerment as essential components of poverty eradication, human development and human rights. The Millennium Declaration reflects widespread international acknowledgement that empowerment of women and the achievement of gender equality are matters of human rights and social justice. It is another indication of the successful efforts of women to put gender on the global policy agenda. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Ending the marginalization: strategies for incorporating women into the United Nations Human Rights System.

    Gallagher A

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1997; 19:283-333.

    Women's rights are human rights. The failure of the United Nations human rights system to address adequately the concerns of women became a rallying point at the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna Conference). For the first time ever, the international community openly acknowledged that the body of international laws and mechanisms established to promote and protect human rights had not properly taken into account the concerns of over half the world's population. In the final document of the Vienna Conference, states formally recognized the human rights of women to be "an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights." They further demanded that "the equal status of women and the human rights of women . . . be integrated into the mainstream of United Nations system-wide activity" and "form an integral part of the United Nations human rights activities." These calls were repeated, in stronger terms and in greater detail, some two years later at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing Conference). (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Report on the activities on trafficking in women and girls of the Division for the Advancement of Women.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for the Advancement of Women

    [Unpublished] 2003 Oct. Prepared for the Second Coordination Meeting on International Migration, United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, New York, October 15-16, 2003. 4 p. (UN/POP/MIG/2003/15)

    The Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) provides substantive and technical servicing to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the body that monitors implementation of the CEDAW Convention. The Division also provides substantive support to the Commission on the Status of Women, the central intergovernmental body responsible for follow-up to and monitoring of the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcomes of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly in 2000, “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”. The Division also provides substantive support to the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council in relation to their work on gender equality and the advancement of women. To that end, the Division undertakes policy research and analysis, convenes expert group and technical meetings on issues falling within the Beijing Platform for Action; supports gender mainstreaming into all policies and programmes of the United Nations; and also implements a small technical cooperation and advisory services programme which focuses on capacity building for national machineries for the advancement of women, and support for governments in implementation of the Convention, with a particular focus on reporting. Turning to the topic of this panel, trafficking in human beings is the fastest growing form of transnational organized crime, involving very high earnings and very low risks. It thrives on the fact that many countries do not have adequate laws against trafficking. Globalization has facilitated freer movements of people, goods and services across international borders, unwittingly resulting in camouflaging clandestine operations such as human trafficking. Trafficking in women and girls is one of the most corrosive forms of violation of human rights. It results in gradual and total destruction of a woman’s personal identity and her right to live as a free human being in a civilized society. Victims are subjected to violence, humiliation and violation of personal integrity, which in many cases leaves them with the lifelong effects of mental and physical trauma. The victim of such devastating violence may also end up with life-threatening HIV/AIDS, STDs, drug addiction or personality disintegration. It is a denial of the right to liberty and security of the person, the right to freedom from torture, violence, cruelty or degrading treatment, the right to a home and a family, the right to education and employment, the right to health care - everything that makes for a life with dignity. Trafficking has been rightly referred to as a modern form of slavery. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Popularizing women's human rights at the local level: a grassroots methodology for setting the international agenda.

    Suarez Toro M

    In: Women's rights, human rights: international feminist perspectives, edited by Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper. New York, New York, Routledge, 1995. 189-194.

    Women working at local and international levels must reach out to each other so that the experiences, discoveries, and agendas of one group can inform and influence the work of the other. In Vienna, women from diverse regions and with varied kinds of experience worked together to create a unified agenda for advocacy in the international arena. That they were able to do so is in itself a victory. But though Vienna may have brought the movement for women's human rights to a new threshold, it was only a stepping stone. The challenge for advocates of women's human rights remains: to contribute to the empowerment of women in everyday life; to make a tangible difference in women's lives by implementing the kinds of change they themselves choose; and to hold the United Nations and individual governments accountable for the needs and rights of women in their own very diverse communities and in the global governance. That challenge must be met at every level and in every possible venue. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    The lack of equal rights for African women is a central cause of the rapid transmission of HIV / AIDS on the continent.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2003 May 13. 2 p.

    To focus international attention on the often ignored fact that women are now the majority of people infected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, averaging 58% of all the infected population, Noeleen Heyzer, executive director of UNIFEM - The United Nations Development Fund for Women - is arriving in South Africa for consultations to assess the degree to which HIV/AIDS infects and affects women. The dialogue with women and youth AIDS organizations will result in specific strategic recommendations on how the perspectives and experiences of women can be better integrated into national AIDS programs and policies. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Gender, media and democracy.

    Williams T

    Round Table. 2000 Oct; 357:577-583.

    Gender equality is central to democracy and to the wellbeing and future prosperity of societies. Yet three decades after a new understanding of development began to emerge and a way of integrating women into the development process was sought, gender equality still has not been realized. There has been considerable progress for women, who account for over 50 per cent of the world's population, yet much more still has to be achieved. Traditional perceptions of the rôles of women and men in society must be rethought and men's stake in gender equality understood. This involves the reorganization of the basic institutions of society-the market, Government and the family. Also, the media, which helps define what we think and what our place is in society, have a crucial rôle to play in changing people's perceptions and stereotyped views of the rôles of men and women. In the Platform for Action that emerged from the United Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, the media were identified as one of the major areas of concern. Gender sensitizing the media must be a priority. (author's)
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  25. 25

    Key paths for science and technology. On the road to environmentally sustainable and equitable development.

    Kettel B

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 27-53.

    This document is the second chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter identifies key pathways for S&T research and policy formulation that will support women's environmental perceptions, needs, and interests. The introduction notes that women and men have different environmental needs and interests; that these differences are manifest in gender-based division of labor, access to resources, and knowledge systems; and that the emerging "gender and environments analysis" framework reveals the potentially negative effect on women, families, and the environment of S&T interventions geared towards men's needs and interests. This chapter, therefore, uses a gender and environment approach to reveal how issues of gender equity, environmental sustainability, and S&T for development overlap and to outline ways to create a gender-sensitive approach to the use of S&T in development interventions. After addressing the topics of 1) the invisibility of women in the development process, 2) discovering women and the environment, 3) the price of complacency and gender bias, and 4) shaping a gender-sensitive agenda for sustainable and equitable development, the chapter presents key policy themes and suggestions for future research in the areas of 1) the environment and women's health; 2) alleviating women's poverty; 3) women, technology, and entrepreneurship; 4) environmental literacy and access to information; and 5) national-level participation and decision-making. The chapter then reviews the role of UN agreements and other key documents and ends by reiterating the importance of following the five key pathways identified above to achieve gender sensitive S&T research and policy formation.
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