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International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1993 Apr. 30,  p.UNICEF has published this booklet to communicate its view of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the underlying societal conditions that caused HIV/AIDS to emerge and that continue to inflame its global spread. UNICEF lays out actions that we must all do in concert to decelerate and eventually stop HIV's fatal spread. These actions must address unsafe sexual practices and unsafe societal practices. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women serve as a plan of action that covers the degree of social mobilization needed to produce social change as well as to focus attention on those at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS in developing countries--women and youth. AIDS combines issues of poverty, inequality, culture, and sexuality in complex ways. UNICEF-advocated actions to effect necessary change include: promoting the healthy development of youth so they can control their lives, providing sexual and reproductive health services, improving health care practices, and caring for and counseling families afflicted by AIDS. Focusing on out-of-school youth will reach most youth. Reorientation of curricula toward improved teacher education, better peer support, youth-friendly health services, life skills education, counseling, and community awareness is needed for schools. Promotion of sexual and reproductive health is essential. Youth and women's groups need the support of the media, religious leaders, policymakers, human rights organizations, the private sector, and parent-teacher groups. Societal tools, not scientific tools, will slow the spread of HIV infection. Youth and women must have access to education and vocational training to improve their quality of life. They need access to a safe, receptive place where they can talk about reproductive and sexual issues and secure condoms. Empowerment of youth and women will lead to a stop in the spread of HIV/AIDS.