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  1. 1

    Key paths for science and technology. On the road to environmentally sustainable and equitable development.

    Kettel B

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 27-53.

    This document is the second chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter identifies key pathways for S&T research and policy formulation that will support women's environmental perceptions, needs, and interests. The introduction notes that women and men have different environmental needs and interests; that these differences are manifest in gender-based division of labor, access to resources, and knowledge systems; and that the emerging "gender and environments analysis" framework reveals the potentially negative effect on women, families, and the environment of S&T interventions geared towards men's needs and interests. This chapter, therefore, uses a gender and environment approach to reveal how issues of gender equity, environmental sustainability, and S&T for development overlap and to outline ways to create a gender-sensitive approach to the use of S&T in development interventions. After addressing the topics of 1) the invisibility of women in the development process, 2) discovering women and the environment, 3) the price of complacency and gender bias, and 4) shaping a gender-sensitive agenda for sustainable and equitable development, the chapter presents key policy themes and suggestions for future research in the areas of 1) the environment and women's health; 2) alleviating women's poverty; 3) women, technology, and entrepreneurship; 4) environmental literacy and access to information; and 5) national-level participation and decision-making. The chapter then reviews the role of UN agreements and other key documents and ends by reiterating the importance of following the five key pathways identified above to achieve gender sensitive S&T research and policy formation.
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  2. 2

    Population issues: briefing kit 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. [2], 21 p.

    The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
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