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  1. 1
    274365
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact of structural adjustment on women: a governance and human rights agenda.

    Sadasivam B

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1997; 19:630-665.

    It is now well-established that structural adjustment and stabilization policies (SAPs) undertaken in developing countries to receive condition-based loans from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have exacerbated conditions of poverty and deprivation for large sections of the population. Several commentators have also shown that these macroeconomic policies are not class-neutral or gender-neutral. The World Bank's emphasis on "safety nets" to cushion the poor from the impact of orthodox stabilization and adjustment policies is an admission that these policies do not affect all sections of the population equally. The human and social costs of adjustment have evoked growing concern and unease at the United Nations, among governments, and among some donors. These concerns arise out of the institutionalization of the market model of economic growth that has made such growth synonymous with the dominant view of "development," although it does not favor equity, sustainability, or redistribution of wealth and resources. Recent UN conferences, most notably the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen in March 1995 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995, have highlighted the ways in which such economic policies have focused on debt repayment by developing countries at the cost of human development. Specialized UN agencies, such as the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), have also pointed to the growing human and economic inequalities caused by market driven growth and stressed the need to protect the vulnerable, women in particular, from marginalization. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    130879

    Key paths for science and technology. On the road to environmentally sustainable and equitable development.

    Kettel B

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 27-53.

    This document is the second chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter identifies key pathways for S&T research and policy formulation that will support women's environmental perceptions, needs, and interests. The introduction notes that women and men have different environmental needs and interests; that these differences are manifest in gender-based division of labor, access to resources, and knowledge systems; and that the emerging "gender and environments analysis" framework reveals the potentially negative effect on women, families, and the environment of S&T interventions geared towards men's needs and interests. This chapter, therefore, uses a gender and environment approach to reveal how issues of gender equity, environmental sustainability, and S&T for development overlap and to outline ways to create a gender-sensitive approach to the use of S&T in development interventions. After addressing the topics of 1) the invisibility of women in the development process, 2) discovering women and the environment, 3) the price of complacency and gender bias, and 4) shaping a gender-sensitive agenda for sustainable and equitable development, the chapter presents key policy themes and suggestions for future research in the areas of 1) the environment and women's health; 2) alleviating women's poverty; 3) women, technology, and entrepreneurship; 4) environmental literacy and access to information; and 5) national-level participation and decision-making. The chapter then reviews the role of UN agreements and other key documents and ends by reiterating the importance of following the five key pathways identified above to achieve gender sensitive S&T research and policy formation.
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  3. 3
    128435

    The United Nations and the advancement of women, 1945-1996. Revised ed.

    United Nations. Department of Public Information

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 1996. [3], 845 p. (United Nations Blue Book Series, Vol. 6)

    The first section of this book traces the history of the UN's efforts to improve the status of women. An overview is presented in the first part, and part 2 chronicles the UN's efforts to secure the legal foundations of women's rights during the period 1945-62. Part 3 traces the stage of the UN's work (1963-75) that began with recognition of the indispensable role of women in development and of the gulf between the existence of women's legal rights and women's ability to exercise these rights. Part 4 follows developments through the UN Decade for Women (1976-85), and part 5 describes actions taken from 1986-96 to respond to the failure of the Decade for Women to achieve improvements in the priority areas of employment, health, and education. Part 6 concludes this section by remarking on the strategies and issues that will dominate the UN's next 50 years of work in improving women's status and eliminating gender-based discrimination and by noting that the Platform for Action from the 1996 Fourth World Conference on Women serves as a tool in the empowerment of women but that the formal recognition of women's rights has yet to lead to a practical improvement in their status. The remainder of the book contains 1) a chronology of events, 2) a chronology of UN conferences and seminars, and 3) a selection of documents on women published by the UN that form a comprehensive record of UN involvement in the campaign to promote women's rights, including the complete texts of the major conventions, treaties, and declarations.
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