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NewsCAP: The WHO releases Consolidated Guideline on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women Living with HIV.
American Journal of Nursing. 2018 Jul; 118(7):17.Add to my documents.
Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . vi, 27 p.This framework was developed to help address persistent gender inequality and human rights violations. These violations put women and girls at greater risk of HIV and threaten the gains that have been made in preventing HIV transmission and increasing access to antiretroviral treatment.
Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Towards an effective implementation of international norms to end violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Ertürk.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Dec 26. 24 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66)In section I, the report defines the mandate and methods of work of the Special Rapporteur. Section II describes the activities of the Special Rapporteur since she took over the mandate in August 2003. Reference is also made to the activities of the former Special Rapporteur from 2003, until the end of her tenure in July. Section III starts with an assessment of the developments of the past decade in the area of women's human rights and violence against women, and continues with a focus on violence against women, as it manifests within a broad spectrum from the domicile to the transnational arena, in order to capture the persistence of the old as well as the emergence of new sites and forms of violence. Within this context, emphasis is placed on the universality of violence against women, the multiplicity of its forms and the intersectionality of diverse kinds of discrimination against women and its linkage to a system of domination that is based on subordination and inequality. HIV/AIDS is highlighted as the single most devastating epidemic experienced in modern history and that embodies the intersectionality of diverse forms of discrimination. Owing to the magnitude of health, security, development and human rights problems associated with HIV/AIDS and its intricate interplay with violence against women, the Special Rapporteur intends to carry out extensive research on the issue for her annual report for 2005. Finally, section III of the present report elaborates on guidelines for developing strategies for the effective implementation of international standards to end violence against women at the national level and proposes an intervention strategy with three interrelated levels, consisting of the State, the community, and the individual woman. While the State is bound by international human rights law, it is suggested that the human rights discourse at the level of the community and individual women needs to be complemented by a culture and an empowerment discourse, respectively. Section IV contains the conclusions of the report, highlighting the issues raised throughout the report that require further research and analysis. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [OHCHR], 2003. 8 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/45)Reaffirming that discrimination on the basis of sex is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments, and that its elimination is an integral part of efforts towards the elimination of violence against women. Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Recalling all its previous resolutions on the elimination of violence against women, in particular its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint a special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2004 Nov.  p.The Global Coalition on Women and Aids brings together a wide range of partners - civil society groups, networks of women living with HIV and AIDS, governments, and UN agencies - who work together to lessen the devastating impact of AIDS on women and girls worldwide. Almost half of the adults living with HIV and AIDS today are women. Over the past two years, the number of women and girls infected with HIV has increased in every region of the world, with rates rising particularly rapidly in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In sub-Saharan Africa, women and girls already make up almost 60% of adults living with HIV. Launched in early 2004, the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS works at global and national levels to highlight the effects of AIDS on women and girls and to stimulate concrete and effective action to prevent the spread of HIV. Coalition partners seek to address some of the fundamental gender inequalities that fuel the epidemic. Efforts are focused on preventing new HIV infections, promoting equal access to care and treatment, ensuring universal access to education, addressing legal inequities, reducing violence against women, and valuing women's care work within communities. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jun; 28(4):751-773.The achievement of women's equality is an elusive goal, especially in developing economies, where states have been unable or unwilling to protect and promote women's human rights and gender equality. Many argue that globalisation has heightened gender inequality. One response to this crisis is the United Nations corporate citizenship initiative: the Global Compact. This paper argues that the Global Compact has a strong gender equality mandate, which has not been fulfilled. The paper advances a number of reasons why this may be the case, including the lack of women's participation at many levels, the pervasive nature of women's inequality and the fact it may not be in the interests of Global Compact signatories to address this inequality. Despite the limitations of this voluntary initiative, it does have some potential to effect positive change. However, unless the pervasive and continued violation of women's human rights is addressed by the Global Compact, the claim that it is a viable new form ofglobal governance for addressing major social and economic problems is severely weakened. (author's)
Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
Washington, D.C., Action Aid, 2007. 76 p.In response to the growing body of evidence on violence and HIV&AIDS, and in response to calls by human rights advocates for effective action on these issues, international institutions and national governments have articulated a concern to address gender-based violence, including within the context of HIV&AIDS. Little is known, however, about what is actually being done to address these issues in policies, programming and funding, and whether the efforts that are underway are truly based on the human rights and health agenda advocated for so long by women's movements throughout the world. In order to better understand the level of resources - in policy, programming and funding -- committed to this deadly intersection, a report was commissioned by an international coalition of organizations working on women's human rights, development, health and HIV& AIDS. This report, "Show Us the Money: is violence against women on the HIV&AIDS donor agenda?" analyses the policies, programming and funding patterns of the four largest public donors to HIV&AIDS: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/US), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the World Bank, and UNAIDS (the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS). The report is the first step in an effort by this coalition to monitor the policies, programmes, and funding streams of international agencies and national governments, and to hold these agencies accountable to basic health and human rights objectives. (excerpt)
Development and Change. 2007 Mar; 38(2):169-199.This article situates the politics of gender in Afghanistan in the nexus of global and local influences that shape the policy agenda of post-Taliban reconstruction. Three sets of factors that define the parameters of current efforts at securing gender justice are analysed: a troubled history of state-society relations; the profound social transformations brought about by years of prolonged conflict; and the process of institution-building under way since the Bonn Agreement in 2001. This evolving institutional framework opens up a new field of contestation between the agenda of international donor agencies, an aid-dependent government and diverse political factions, some with conservative Islamist platforms. At the grassroots, the dynamics of gendered disadvantage, the erosion of local livelihoods, the criminalization of the economy and insecurity at the hands of armed groups combine seamlessly to produce extreme forms of female vulnerability. The ways in which these contradictory influences play out in the context of a fluid process of political settlement will be decisive in determining prospects for the future. (author's)
Statement at the Informal Interactive Hearings of the United Nations General Assembly by Geeta Rao Gupta, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), June 23, 2005.
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 2005. 5 p.It is a tragic reality that in this, the 21st century, despite the progress made in economic development, women and girls in many parts of the world continue to suffer inequalities based on gender in health, education, and nutrition; face persistent constraints in access to economic and political opportunities; and continue to live lives that are marked by violence or the fear of violence not just in times of war but also in times of peace, not just within the home but also in the street. Yet, as a global community, we know, and have known for many decades, that freeing women from these disadvantages and injustices is fundamental to the fulfillment of their human rights and is critical for meeting the goals of economic and social development. In recognition of this important fact, each of you as members of this august General Assembly, in your shared vision of development, gave gender equality and the empowerment of women a prominent place among the eight goals listed as the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
Equality for women highlighted at Economic and Social Council; ninety-nine texts adopted on a wide spectrum of issues - includes details of Council action.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..A wide range of texts aimed at promoting women's rights throughout the world was adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1990, held from 1 to 25 May in New York. Prominent among them was a set of recommendations and conclusions resulting from a recent UN evaluation, five years after the adoption of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women at the World Conference held in Kenya in 1985. Its general conclusion: progress in achieving equality for women had either slowed down or stopped. Declaring that "immediate steps should be taken to remove the most serious obstacles" to the Strategies and that the pace of its implementation should be improved in the crucial last decade of the twentieth century, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990/15 setting out recommendations and conclusions. (excerpt)
Equal pay, urban women problems discussed by Commission - UN Commission on the Status of Women, 38th session, Mar 7-18, 1994 - includes news of other developments pertaining to equal pay and equality in marriage.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2): p..Equal pay for work of equal value, women in urban areas and measures to eradicate violence against women were among the issues dealt with by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-eighth session (7-18 March, New York). Being also the preparatory body for the Fourth world conference on Women in Beijing 1995, the commission's work focused on preparatory activities, in particular the drafting of the Platform for Action. In discussing priority themes--equality, development and peace--established for its thirty-seven through fortieth sessions, the Commission adopted 13 resolutions, many calling on Governments to urgently improve the situations of women around the world. "The road to Beijing must be paved with vision, commitment and a determination to harness the support of Governments to remove the remaining obstacles to the advancement of women", Gertrude Mongella, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary-General of the Fourth World Conference, told the 45-member Commission on 7 March. It has the task of organizing that conclave, which is set for September 1995. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4): p..While the creation of a legal framework which guarantees equal rights for women and men was always regarded as a primary prerequisite for gender equality; it turned out to be far from sufficient, since women and girls face a multitude of constraints imposed by society, not by law. For centuries, societies have created customary rules which, mostly on the basis of sex, class, place of birth, clan or family name, determine to a great extent what role an individual can play. These roles reflect an unwritten social contract within a society on who ought to do what, who rules, who wades, who cares for children, who decides public matters; in short, who occupies a certain space and position in society or in the home. Historically, socially constructed gender roles put women and girls at a disadvantage, denied them equal status with men, restricted their access to income, education and decision-making, and confined their sphere of influence to the home. Today's statistics document the consequences: 70 per cent of the world's poor are women, 2 out of 3 adult illiterates are female. Women are mostly excluded from politics and economic decision-making. Even in Western countries, women hold only approximately 15 per cent of parliamentary seats. Moreover, many women and girls continue to suffer from violence and systematic discrimination. (excerpt)
Development and Change. 2005; 36(6):983-1010.The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (the 'Beijing Conference') was a landmark in policy terms, setting a global policy framework to advance gender equality. Ten years after Beijing, in March 2005, the UN's Commission on the Status of Women presided over an intergovernmental meeting in New York to review the progress achieved on the commitments made in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. This 'Plus 10' event was decidedly low key. Its aim was not agenda setting but agenda confirming; not policy formulation but policy affirmation. Whether it proves to be part of an ongoing worldwide movement in support of gender equality, or whether it marks the decline of that process, is a question that many in international women's movements are asking. This article, drawing on research undertaken for the UNRISD report, Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, reflects on the ambivalent record of progress achieved by women over the last decades and considers how the policy environment has changed over the period since the high point of global women's movements. It examines how the changing international policy and political climate over this period has given rise to new issues and challenges for those active in global women's movements. (author's)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2002.  p.The mainstreaming strategy is implemented in somewhat different ways in relation to activities such as research, policy development, policy analysis, programme delivery, or technical assistance activities. The opportunities and processes are different for each area of work. For example, an important challenge and opportunity in technical assistance activities is to identify how gender dimensions are relevant and then establish a constructive dialogue with potential partners on gender equality issues; in defining a research project a critical concern is ensuring that conceptual frameworks and methodologies will capture the different and unequal situations of women and men. In addition, the mainstreaming strategy must be adapted to the particular subject under discussion. The analytic approach and questions asked must be appropriate to the specific concerns being addressed. Clearly, different questions must be asked to understand the gender equality implications of macroeconomic policy than are asked about policies related to small arms control. There is no set formula or blueprint that can be applied in every context. However, what is common to mainstreaming in all sectors or development issues is that a concern for gender equality is brought into the ‘mainstream’ of activities rather than dealt with as an ‘add-on’. The first steps in the mainstreaming strategy are the assessment of how and why gender differences and inequalities are relevant to the subject under discussion, identifying where there are opportunities to narrow these inequalities and deciding on the approach to be taken. (excerpt)
Domestic violence as a human rights issue. [La violencia doméstica como un problema de derechos humanos]
Human Rights Quarterly. 1993 Feb; 15(1):36-62.Part I of this paper examines why domestic violence was not analyzed traditionally as a human rights issue. It discusses the three independent, though interrelated, changes that occurred to begin to make such an analysis possible: the expansion of the application of state responsibility; the recognition of domestic violence as widespread and largely unprocesuted (brought about by greater public and international recognition of the daily violence experienced by women); and, the understanding that the systematic, discriminatory non-prosecution of domestic violence constitutes a violation of the right to equal protection under international law. Part II describes the first practical application of this evolving approach, in Brazil, where the presence of a broad-based women's movement made it possible to collect the data necessary to support an analysis of the government's responsibility for domestic violence. Finally, Part III explores the value and limitations of the human rights approach to combating domestic violence. We conclude that the human rights approach can be a powerful tool to combat domestic violence, but that there are currently both practical and methodological limitations--in part related to the use of the equal protection framework to assign state responsibility for domestic violence--that are problematic and require further analysis to make the approach more effective. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 1991 May; 13(2):229-256.The Charter of the United Nations forbids discrimination on the basis of "race, sex, language or religion." Some of the delegations involved in drafting the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights felt that this short list of four nondiscrimination items was enough and should be repeated in the Declaration. Others wanted to be more exhaustive. The matter was referred to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities. This commission recommended that the article in the Declaration state that "[e]veryone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind such as race, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property status, or national or social origin." Everything after "religion" was added to the Charter list. A few objections were raised, but nothing was deleted from the list. Instead, the two items of "color" and "birth" were added to the Sub-Commission's recommendation. Article 2 of the Declaration is thus an expansion of the Charter's mandate that the new world organization promote human rights for all without discrimination. This theme of nondiscrimination runs through all the deliberations about the Declaration, and whatever disagreements there were about the various items on the list were minor. There was complete agreement that the article on nondiscrimination was a keystone of the Declaration and a gateway to its universality. If we take away someone's race, sex, and opinions on various subjects, all information about his or her background, about birth and present economic status, what we have left is just a human being, one without frills. And the Declaration says that the human rights it proclaims belong to these kinds of stripped-down people, that is, to everyone, without exception. As Mr. Heywood, the Australian representative, said, "logically, discrimination was prohibited by the use in each article of the phrase 'every person' or 'everyone.'" That is why the prohibition against discrimination is not repeated- -as it well might have been--with each article, but is stated at the beginning and made applicable to "all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration." Given this opening prohibition against discrimination, there is, strictly speaking, no need for repetition. But that does not mean that the temptation was not there, especially in the case of sex-based discrimination. Nor does it mean that the final product--a litany of the words "everyone" and "no one"--was arrived at without struggle. For there was a struggle, especially in the case of women's rights. (excerpt)
In: Global appeal, 2004, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2004. 28-43.Promoting equality between refugee women and men and ensuring that refugee women’s rights are recognised and implemented as an integral part of human rights is at the heart of UNHCR’s policy to provide better protection and assistance to refugee women. This policy is also rooted in international agreements and standards, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, ExCom conclusions, ECOSOC resolutions and Security Council Resolution 1325. UNHCR’s approach to empowering refugee women is based on mainstreaming gender equality by placing it at the centre of policy decisions. Empowering refugee women through multi-sectoral activities will enhance the protection of their rights, their capacity to participate in decision-making processes and their contribution to the well-being of their families and communities. It will also help to ensure that they participate actively in the design of durable solutions for their communities, including peace-building through reconciliation and peace negotiation processes. To this end, UNHCR will provide support to country operations to build teams and networks that will ensure adequate protection and assistance to women and girls. UNHCR will build on lessons learned to give visibility to refugee women’s capacities and needs, integrating these elements into all stages of the programming cycle. In 2004, UNHCR will promote a broadening of responsibility and accountability for the protection and empowerment of refugee women. Leadership by senior mangement in headquarters and the field offices will also be emphasised. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, Program Division, Education, 2002.  p. (Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/02-1)UNICEF's Programme Division is pleased to present this Working Paper on women teachers as part of our knowledge building effort in girls' education. The research for this paper was conducted several years ago, but many of the arguments presented on gender issues in education have particular significance for the Medium Term Strategic Plan (2002 –2005). Girls' education is the top UNICEF organizational priority. The paper analyzes the early days of the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. To begin with, UNICEF followed a "gender blind" approach to the training programme. However, as the evidence presented in the paper shows, there was a necessary and notable shift towards an explicit focus on exposing and addressing gender-biased attitudes, roles and behaviours. Without this additional focus, equality between men and women in the programme would not have been achievable. Testimonies from UNICEF staff members, female trainers and teachers all show the importance of assessing and analyzing the impact of gender bias - implicitly and explicitly. The paper also argues that for women teachers to be true role models and be able to pass on the values of gender equity to girls and boys, they need to be able to facilitate their own empowerment in both private and public life. The TEP contributes to the improvement of women teachers, in the short-run, and, in the longrun, towards improved and sustainable girls’ education. All UNICEF staff, and professionals in other organizations can benefit from the lessons learned through the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 1999 Sep; 13(2): p..The fact that half of the world's population lives in poverty today, up from one-quarter 25 years ago, is an "inescapable blot" on the record of human progress, remarked UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his opening address before the 1999 session of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Poverty eradication was the overarching theme of the entire ECOSOC session, held in Geneva from 5- 30 July. The Secretary-General's report on "The role of employment and work in poverty eradication: the empowerment and advancement of women," provided the sub-theme for discussions during the ECOSOC session's opening (high-level) segment, held from 5-8 July. People living in sub-Saharan Africa are the most deeply mired in poverty, with incomes the furthest below the poverty line worldwide, observes Mr. Annan's report. Moreover, the number of absolute poor continues to rise while the "face of poverty" is changing: in the next century, a poor person will more likely be an unskilled female earning low wages and living in urban Africa or Latin America than a male small-holder living in rural Asia. Therefore, strategies designed to combat the discrimination and disadvantage faced by women "must be central to successful poverty reduction," the report says. (excerpt)