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New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. , 238 p.This overview of women in development includes chapters devoted to women's participation in the labor force and the invisibility of some work, the benefits for women from economic development and the impact on women from economic trends, and a cost-benefit analysis. Other chapters focus on women's role in agriculture, industrial development, finance, science and technology, and trade; on women's use and conservation of energy resources; and on the concept of self-reliance and integration of women in development. Statistical tables and a bibliography accompany each of the sections. Conclusions are drawn on self-reliance that neither development in specific industrial areas nor cooperation within each area is sufficient to respect the need for selecting women specifically as the targeted group. Most developing countries were found not to have a detailed analysis of the development role of women. There appears to be a conceptual lack of clarity about priorities for improving the status of women versus changing their development role. Women themselves are viewed as the arbiters of what their role in development should be. The self-reliance strategy is considered an integral approach to development and one in which the full productive and social emancipation of women is required. Social change in developing countries will come about when the role of women in society changes regardless of the culture and in tune with changes in women's position in the world at large. Development models need to be changed in ways which recognize the "true" economic role of women and their social role. The international community should maintain better communication and closer cooperation nationally, internationally, and within existing institutions that are concerned with developing countries.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. , vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
Development. 1988; (4):47-51.The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) met in March 1988 to discuss the importance of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on the contribution of women to human resource development. Industrialization has adversely affected women at all developmental stages. Although women have been an important economic resource, they are confined to sterotypic roles in the household and/or are hired as low cost labor. Gender inequalities are enhanced by industrialization. Female access to upper level and technical jobs is limited. Companies view women as secondary earners, and women tend to have poor self images and low confidence levels. Education and training for women is practically nonexistent thereby displacing them in the workplace as mechanization increases. Self-employed women have problems establishing and acquiring credit. Labor laws are not enforced by smaller industries. Women do not have a significant voice in collective bargaining or any support services to help decrease their work load. Women's World Banking (WWB) has helped to increase the self-sufficiency of women through credit and education. The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in India organizes the Women's Bank and the Bangladesh Graneen Bank. Women in several countries have organized trade unions. NGOs can serve as pressure groups to push for women's rights. Recommendations to UNIDO include the support of training programs, the support of local governmental human resource planning, the facilitation of female participation in industrial development, and the increase of UNIDO's effectiveness on a more local level. NGOs are urged to be "catalysts of change" through lobbying and motivational techniques; to be "watchdogs" at UN and other conventions in order to monitor and facilitate the progress of women through legal means; to spread issue-related information through mass media; to support training and other services, including credit mechanisms; to organize support services; and to pressure trade unions in support of female workers.