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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xv, 57 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 103)This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. Worldwide operational guidelines for agricultural extension for women farmers are planned for later this year. The recommendations have been gleaned from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers. Ongoing pilot programs have provided useful guidance about what can work to integrate women fully into the agricultural extension system and what problems are likely to emerge in different socioeconomic environments. This is, however, an ongoing process: it is a relatively new field and much remains to be learned. It will be especially important to test alternative approaches over the next few years. This paper will then be revised to incorporate new lessons of experience. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 1 addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture, especially in Africa, and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. Chapter 2 examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and constraints, and to monitor and evaluate programs. Ways to collect such data are also suggested. Chapter 3 deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers -- the role of the extension agents and the importance of gender, the use of home economists and subject matter specialists, and the use of contact farmers and groups. The final Chapter examines the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2003 Jul 9. 15 p.How can information and communication technologies (ICT) be used to promote gender equality in developing nations and to empower women? This essay seeks to deal with that issue, and with the gender effects of the “information revolution.” While obvious linkages will be mentioned, the essay seeks to go beyond the obvious to deal with some of the indirect causal paths of the information revolution on the power of women and equality between the sexes. This is the third1 in a series of essays dealing with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such, it deals specifically with Goal 3: to promote gender equality and to empower women. It is published to coincide with the International Conference on Gender and Science and Technology. The essay will also deal with the specific targets and indicators for Goal 3. (excerpt)
Encounter. 2000 Jul-Aug; 3(4):38-52.Accordingly, the broad objective of this paper is twofold (1) To assess the state of progress of GUI country with emphasis on demography, economy and society. (2) To examine the challenges the country is likely to face in coming years. (excerpt)
WORLD OF WORK. 1995 May-Jun; (12):12-4.Some people produce goods or provide services for an employer or contractor at a place of the worker's choosing. Such work is often undertaken in the worker's home, thus leading to the labeling of such work as home work. There is no direct supervision by the employer or contractor and the employer-employee relationship is difficult to establish. As a category of workers, homeworkers are among the most exploited because they belong to the unorganized sector, accepting pay rates which tend to be well below going rates for even unskilled labor. Indeed, extremely low compensation is the most crucial single issue facing homeworkers. Wages are almost universally based upon the piece-rate system which leads to excessively long working hours, the employment of many unpaid assistants, and child labor. Homeworkers are outside the scope of existing social security schemes and are cut off from the enterprise by a network of agents, contractors, and middlemen. 90% of homeworkers are women. Prevalent though home work may be in both urban and rural areas, the deregulation of labor markets, the globalization of production, and the development of regional trade agreements are causing an increase in the number of homeworkers worldwide. The International Labor Organization recognizes homeworkers as a category of workers in need of special assistance and has taken practical action and adopted viable strategies to improve their situation. The organization even envisages the adoption of a convention to guarantee them minimum protection.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1993. 32,  p.UNICEF sees women in the whole range of their interconnected mothering, family support, community, and socioeconomic roles. An essential precondition to improved social well-being of women is their empowerment. UNICEF's policy is that women's development must be integrated with the socioeconomic mainstream. Gender-based inequalities are targets for affirmative action. UNICEF recognizes that women's low status is decided at conception. It is taking initiatives to bring about major changes in policies and attitudes so the disadvantages females face are not passed to their children, particularly their daughters. In the mid-1980s, UNICEF conducted a series of studies in the Middle East and North Africa on the cultural attitudes emphasizing the value of sons against daughters, which are responsible for the lower survival rate of girls. UNICEF is a strong advocate for the girl child. UNICEF calls for elimination of female genital mutilation. It sponsors studies on the role of sexually transmitted diseases in perinatal deaths. UNICEF supports HIV/AIDS prevention activities, often conducted by local nongovernmental organizations. It supports maternal health and nutrition projects in developing countries. UNICEF promotes breast feeding. UNICEF supports income generation projects for women. It provides guarantees for loans taken out by women in some developing countries. UNICEF provides funds for technologies that reduce the workload of women and girls, such as handpumps and soak-pit latrines. UNICEF has increased its efforts to increase girls' enrollment in schools. It supports adult education for women. UNICEF supports day care programs, such as that in Malawi. In Somalia, UNICEF promotes a nationwide network of women's groups to help postwar service reconstruction and the rebirth of civil society. It is committed to its policy of stressing community participation.
African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
Development. 1989; (4):49-51.In 1970, the United Nations adopted a long-term women's advancement program and other initiatives to raise consciousness on women's issues and to identify appropriate actions to take in promoting gender equality and women's integration in development. Setting its objective as equality between the sexes by the year 2000, the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies is also a UN system-wide medium-term plan with specific activities to implement over the period 1990-95. These UN actions have, therefore, prepared the way for women's advancement in the 1990s and beyond. Efforts do, however, need to be made to build upon and expand these initiatives to facilitate the total integration, participation, and recognition of women in the social, economic, and political lives of countries throughout the world. Present UN strategy suffers from multiple focal points, a diffused mandate, limited financial resources, and inadequate interaction with national governments. The development of an UN Special Agency for Women's Development is suggested as a way of solidly propelling women ahead toward globally-recognized equality and greater overall opportunity. This agency would be the umbrella over existing and future related programs and activities, armed with a clear and specific mandate, an independent executive board, an independent fundraising ability, institutional arrangements to undertake in-country projects, and field offices.
Towards a strategy for linking women, population growth, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Regional Conference of African Women Leaders, Nairobi, Kenya, February 8-10, 1989. 24 p.There is a pressing need in Africa to achieve a sustainable balance between population, the environment, and a decent standard of living for all the people. If African women are to play a leadership role in this campaign, clear policies must be instituted to improve their access to education, higher earnings, credit, and health and family planning services. Investing to improve opportunities for women can bring the following benefits: since women produce more than half of Africa's food, effective extension programs can make development programs more productive; such an approach will make development programs more responsive to the poor in that most of the poor in Africa are women and their children; investments in female education in particular can improve family well-being; involving women in natural resource management programs can promote more sustainable use of wood, water, and other resources; and access to family planning services can slow population growth. Better life options for young women would also serve to reduce high rates of teen pregnancy. The World Bank has operationalized this awareness into a program aimed at showing what can be achieved by bringing women into the mainstream of social and economic development in Africa. Initially, the Bank is focusing on a few countries in every region of Africa. The World Bank's program includes: 1) country action plans to develop ways to improve Bank lending in several sectors by more effectively including women; 2) preparation of guidelines and identification of project approaches that address women more effectively in macroeconomic and sectoral analyses; 3) program expansions in agricultural extension services and credit for women; 4) program initiatives to improve the productivity of women entrepreneurs in the informal manufacturing, trade, and services sectors; 5) program expansion in primary, secondary, and technical education for girls and adult women; and 6) the Safe Motherhood Initiative aimed at reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.
World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Indonesia (INS/79/P20 and INS/83/P02) and of the role of women in three other UNFPA-supported projects in Indonesia (INS/77/P03, INS/79/P04, and INS/79/P16).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. vi, 52 p.The Evaluation Mission analyzes and assess the 2 United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-supported Women, Population and Development Projects and the role of women in 3 other UNFPA-assisted projects in Indonesia. The Mission concluded that the family planning and cooperative/income generation scheme as evolved in the 2 projects has contributed to increasing contraceptive acceptance and continuation and to a shift from the less reliable to the more reliable contraceptive methods. The projects have also assisted women and their families to expand their income generating activities, raise their incomes, and improve the family's standard of living. The Mission recommends that: 1) more diversified income producing activities be encouraged; 2) product outlets be identified and mapped and appropriate marketing strategies devised; 2) loan repayment schedules be carefully examined; 4) data collection, monitoring and evaluation be streamlined and strenghthened; and 5) the process of the entire rural cooperatives/income generation scheme be more comprehensively documented. In the 3 other projects, which are addressed to both men and women, the needs and concerns of women have not been adequately taken into account and/or the participation of women in all phases of the projects and their access to project benefits have not been equal to men. The Mission therefore recommends that special consideration be given to women's concerns in the design and formulation of all projects. The Mission ascertained that non-women specific projects tend to perpetuate existing discriminatory or unequal access to, and control of, resources by women unless specific consideration is accorded to them.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983 Jan. 140 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 526)The relationship between women's economic participation and their input into household decision making was investigated in 7 village studies in Nepal. 2 distinct cultural traditions were represented in the sample: Indo-Aryan/Hindu and Tibeto-Burman/Buddhist-Animist. The village economy is conceptualized in 4 concentric spheres: 1) household domestic work, 2) household agricultural production activity, 3) work in the local market economy, and 4) employment in the wider economy beyond the village. Aggregate data revealed that women are responsible for 86%, 57%, 38%, and 25% of the input into these 4 spheres, respectively. It was hypothesized that women's participation in the market economy increases their status (defined in terms of household decision making), while confinement to nonmarket subsistence production and domestic work reduces women's status. This hypothesis was confirmed. Women in the more orthodox Hindu communities, who are largely confined to domestic and subsistence production, were found to play a less significant role in major household economic decisions than women in Tibeto-Burman communities where women participate more actively in the market sector. Money earned in the market sector allows women to make a measurable contribution to household income, and thus appears to enhance the perception of women as equal partners. In addition, women's decision making input was found to be inversely related to the income status of the household. These results indicate that integrating women into the market economy is not only an efficient use of local resources, but also improves women's status and economic security. The time allocation and decision making data reveal that women play the major role in agricultural production, both as laborers and managers. This suggests the need to train female agricultural extension agents and to make male workers aware of the need to reach female farmers. The results further indicate that involvement of women in the development process leads to lowered fertility and more positive attitudes toward educating female children. Tibeto-Burman women have lower birthrates than Hindu women, perhaps due to their greater economic security and availability of alternate female role models. An extensive methodological annex, including survey instruments, is included.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, 1980 Dec. 45 p. (Contract AID/otr/147-80-76)Of all of USAID's various projects, income generating programs attract the most interest. Women's income generation includes any self-supporting project where benefits accrue to women participants from sale of items for money, from employment for wages, or increased produce. Projects which include planting trees to increase fuel or fodder supply, conserving soil, using appropriate technology, or eliminating waste, may benefit participants either in income or in acquisition. Poor women in India are paid in precooked food. Selecting the right project for the right group of people is the key to success. Specific considerations include the following: 1) products being supplied to the market; 2) available economic, natural, and skill resources; 3) any social organization which includes the identified group of women; 4) what social welfare needs have the highest priority; and, 5) how can the political structure help or hinder the identified group's economic participation and/or success? An insufficient resource base, market and management skills have been identified by many developers as the weakest aspect in women's projects. For small businesses the most important questions are as follows: what is the market; why is the project needed by the market; what are the steps from obtaining raw materials until the profits are distributed or reinvested; what are the potentials for growth; what is the outside expertise needed; and, how will the outside expertise be obtained and paid?
Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 2. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 324-52. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)On the basis of data from labor force surveys, a profile of Australia's economically active population is presented for the 1966-80 period. This period encompassed both sustained postwar economic growth and a decline in economic activity, with the development of trends likely to affect the future structure of the Australian economy. In 1980, the labor force totalled 6,639.0 thousand--4,180.0 thousand males (77.9%) and 2,459.0 thousand females (44.7%), of whom 1,482.1 thousand (42.8%) were married. There has been a marked increase in labor force participation among married women, due to changing attitudes toward working outside the home, increased child care facilities, smaller family size, greater parttime employment opportunities, and the growth of industries traditionally employing women. There has also been a decline in labor force participation among men in the older age groups, reflecting both low labor demand and the trend toward earlier retirement. The Australian labor force is highly mobile, with 25% of employees changing employers each year. Most of this mobility is within urban centers. The share of total employment represented by parttime workers rose from 9.8% in 1966 to 16.4% in 1980. Married women comprise 60% of the parttime workers. The composition of the labor force by industry was as follows in 1980: agriculture and services to agriculture, 6.06%; mining, 1.35%; manufacturing, 19.74%; construction, 7.74%; trade, 20.26%; transport and storage, 5.47%; finance and business, 8.17%; community services, 16.13%; entertainment, restaurants, and personal services, 6.19%; and other, 8.89%. The trend in the 1966-80 period has been toward a decline in jobs in agriculture and manufacturing and an increase in positions in the service sector. The number of professional and technical workers increased 4.8%/year in this period. Most of the increase was among teachers and medical workers, reflecting increased government funding to the health and education sectors. Real earnings increased by 45% from $94/week in 1966 to $136/week in 1974, then levelled off. Women's earnings average 67% those of men. The unemployment rate began rising in the mid-1970s and stood at 4.9% in 1980. Unemployment is particularly high among women in all age groups and 15-24 year old males.