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  1. 1
    141579
    Peer Reviewed

    Health-care camps for the poor provide mass sterilisation quota.

    Kumar S

    Lancet. 1999 Apr 10; 353(9160):1251.

    In Andhra Pradesh, India, women's groups have formed a Group Against Targeted Sterilization (GATS) to protest the creation of sterilization camps created by government officials in Hyderabad and Secunderabad, where 20,000 people, mostly women, were sterilized to meet a quota deadline. GATS charges that the women were offered incentives to undergo sterilization and that those who resisted were threatened with disconnection of their household utilities. GATS does not oppose family planning or female sterilization but opposes the dehumanizing use of incentives and threats. The impoverished women who are targeted for mass sterilization undergo the procedures in unhygienic settings. Many are anemic, which is a contraindication to any surgical procedure, and they receive no postoperative care. The targeted sterilizations were performed under the banner of the Indian Population Project (IPP), which is funded by the World Bank. GATS fears that the entire IPP will be diverted from the intention of its donor (the World Bank is committed to a target-free approach) and will become subservient to population control efforts.
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  2. 2
    077482

    Norplant: conflicting views on its safety and acceptability.

    Hardon A

    In: Issues in reproductive technology I: an anthology, edited by Helen Bequaert Holmes. New York, New York, Garland Publishing, 1992. 11-30. (Garland Reference Library of Social Science Vol. 729)

    The progestin, levonorgestrel, suppresses ovulation and thickens the cervical mucus. The 1-year pregnancy rate is 0.2/100 users and the 5-year rate is 3.9/100 users. Contraindications of Norplant include abnormal bleeding, cardiovascular conditions, liver tumors, and breast cancer. The most frequent side effect is changes in bleeding patterns. A main concern of women's health advocates is that women are dependent on the medical establishment for insertion and removal of Norplant which affects the provider-client relationship. Family planning programs that do not recognize a woman's right to free choice of existing contraceptives and her right to have Norplant removed at any time may abuse Norplant. Health workers still do not know the long term effects of Norplant and Norplant's effect on the fetus in case of method failure or insertion while pregnant. Most acceptability studies occurred at university-based health clinics or at clinics in urban areas. The clinic environment may affect women's answers. These studies should occur in the community and home of users and nonusers. Another bias of these studies was clinic staff chose women who would tend to continue using Norplant. Thus subjects were not representative of the population. Researchers did not attempt to understand the women's perception of reproduction physiology and mode of action, the women's cost benefit analysis used to determine what method to use, or the consequences of menstruation changes. They also did not report on the information women received about contraceptive choices. The issue of abuse has arisen in Kansas where a state legislator proposed paying any mother on welfare US$500 if she uses Norplant. In California, a judge ordered a woman convicted of child abuse to use Norplant after release from jail and throughout her probation period.
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