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An introduction to the Human Trafficking Assessment Tool: an assessment tool based on the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
Washington, D.C., American Bar Association [ABA], Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative [CEELI], 2005 Dec.  p.Trafficking in persons is one of the most prevalent crimes today involving severe human rights violations. Governments, non-governmental groups, and international organizations have recognized trafficking as a contemporary form of slavery and have initiated a campaign encouraging states to criminalize such conduct, protect affected victims, and develop measures to prevent this phenomenon. Traffickers may be individuals, organized crime groups, or public officials who exploit people as commodities, buying and selling them for profit. Their victims are men, women, and children of various ages and backgrounds, all of whom have one characteristic in common: they are vulnerable to exploitation due to poverty, lack of education, discrimination, or other socio-economic factors. Although trafficking is a crime and a human rights violation regardless of the victim's gender or age, the problem has a disproportionate impact on women and girls. The exploitative purposes of trafficking include but are not limited to: prostitution; forced labor or services; slavery or slave-like practices; servitude; removal of organs. Within the context of inter-state and internal conflict, trafficking in persons is a form of enslavement that qualifies as a crime against humanity. It should be emphasized that trafficking in persons rises to the level of a crime against humanity solely during wartime. During peacetime, trafficking is an independent crime involving various human rights violations. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. 71 p. (Policy Paper Poverty Series No. 14.1 (E); SHS/CCT/2006/PI/H/3)Trafficking in human beings, especially women and girls, is not new. Historically, it has taken many forms, but in the context of globalization, has acquired shocking new dimensions. It is a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon involving multiple stakeholders at the institutional and commercial level. It is a demand-driven global business with a huge market for cheap labour and commercial sex confronting often insufficient or unexercised policy frameworks and trained personnel to prevent it. Mozambique is but one of an estimated 10 African countries (Angola, Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) that fuel the human trafficking business that feeds South Africa, the regional magnet. The recent history of armed conflict, extremes of dislocation and loss, reconstruction, political upheaval and deep social scars, together with its particular geography and the AIDS pandemic make Mozambique an inviting target for organized crime. The impact of these events on women and children, together with systemic gender discrimination and the absence of protective legislation make them particularly exposed to human trafficking. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. 70 p. (Policy Paper Poverty Series No. 14.2 (E); SHS/CCT/2006/PI/H/2)Trafficking in human beings, especially women and girls, is not new. Historically it has taken many forms, but in the context of globalization, has acquired shocking new dimensions. It is a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon involving multiple stakeholders at the institutional and commercial level. It is a demand-driven global business with a huge market for cheap labour and commercial sex confronting often insufficient or unexercised policy frameworks or trained personnel to prevent it. Nigeria has acquired a reputation for being one of the leading African countries in human trafficking with cross-border and internal trafficking. Trafficking of persons is the third largest crime after economic fraud and the drug trade. Decades of military regimes in Nigeria have led to the institutionalized violation of human rights and severe political, social and economic crises. This negatively impacts the development of community participation, especially of women and children, despite international institutions designed to advance their causes. In addition, the oil boom in the 1970s created opportunities for migration both inside and outside of the country. This created avenues for exploitation, for international trafficking in women and children, for forced labor and for prostitution. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2006 May; (25):36.Lebanon has a significant problem of trafficking in persons that particularly affects foreign women recruited as domestic workers and foreign women in the sex industry. The trafficking of Lebanese and foreign children into street begging and sexual exploitation is a quantitatively smaller but no less serious problem. Large numbers of migrant women come to Lebanon to serve as domestic workers in private households. NGOs estimate that there are between 120,000 and 200,000 domestic migrant workers in a country of only four million people. Sri Lankan women are the largest group, followed by Filipinas and Ethiopians. The government fails to exercise due diligence in protecting them from exploitation and abuse: The authorities confiscate passports on arrival and hand them to employers who retain them to control their 'investment' of $1,000-2,000 for the agency charge and the airfare; Without passports, women are liable to arrest, criminal conviction as an undocumented migrant and deportation; Women generally sign a contract prior to departure for Lebanon but on arrival find themselves forced to sign another contract for a significantly lower salary; only this contract has legal validity in Lebanon even though it was concluded in a situation characterised by deception and duress; Domestic workers are not allowed to change employers during their stay. (excerpt)