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[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1989 May. , 110 p. (ACC / SCN State-of-the-Art Series; Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 4)This UN state-of-the-art nutrition policy discussion paper focuses on the role of African and Asian women in food-related activities and the consequences for nutrition. Special emphasis is placed on constraints and opportunities for women in providing adequate nutrition for their families, obstacles and potentialities for women in catering to their own nutrition and other basic needs, and areas of conflict and congruence between these two roles. The main obstacles are women's high workloads, seasonal variations in food availability and food chain work, women's low productivity in the food chain, women's low status, and the lack of infrastructure and services relevant to women. Greater female participation in food production and income generation may increase total household food availability and give women control of cash and food as well as improve their status. However, these gains also may increase women's workload and thereby have a negative effect on their health and that of their families. Recommended is a household food security framework that emphasizes food adequacy, viability in procurement, and sustainability. The literature suggests the following criteria for operation of successful woman-oriented programs: a holistic approach, consideration of gender relations, sensitivity and flexibility in planning and implementation, community participation, interaction with rural women on their own terms, and a combination of interventions.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1979 May. 34 p.This document assesses the situation of women in agriculture and rural development in Indonesia, with particular attention to the extent to which rural women are 1) included as a target group in national development plans, policies, and programs; 2) provided access to resources, services, and opportunities that assist them in meeting basic family needs; and 3) involved in policy planning and decision making. The analysis places women within the context of the rural family on the assumption that the rural household is a basic socioeconomic unit of production and consumption. 61.7% of Indonesia's households are farm households. The majority of economically active rural women are unpaid family workers, whereas most rural men are employees. The major occupations of rural women are farming, trade, production, and services. Their daily work load is consistently higher than that of men in every age group. Indonesia's 2nd 5-Year Development Plan (REPELITA II--1974-79) included among its objectives improving the status of women and the educational and employment opportunities available to them. Marriage laws were to be reviewed, and the national family planning program was viewed as a vehicle for reaching a large sector of the female population. REPELITA III (1979-84) includes a focus on providing opportunities for economically weak groups and for young people and women. The government has introduced incentives for family planning, e.g., tax deductions/family has been reduced from 12 to 7, and minimum ages for marriage have been stipulated. Population education has been institutionalized in all formal and nonformal educational activities. The number of family planning clinics has increased from 1465 in 1970-71 to 3343 in 1975-76. School enrollemnt rates are consistently low for rural women. Their involvement in institutions at the village level is very limited and does not reflect their full potential as participants in public life.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983 Jan. 140 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 526)The relationship between women's economic participation and their input into household decision making was investigated in 7 village studies in Nepal. 2 distinct cultural traditions were represented in the sample: Indo-Aryan/Hindu and Tibeto-Burman/Buddhist-Animist. The village economy is conceptualized in 4 concentric spheres: 1) household domestic work, 2) household agricultural production activity, 3) work in the local market economy, and 4) employment in the wider economy beyond the village. Aggregate data revealed that women are responsible for 86%, 57%, 38%, and 25% of the input into these 4 spheres, respectively. It was hypothesized that women's participation in the market economy increases their status (defined in terms of household decision making), while confinement to nonmarket subsistence production and domestic work reduces women's status. This hypothesis was confirmed. Women in the more orthodox Hindu communities, who are largely confined to domestic and subsistence production, were found to play a less significant role in major household economic decisions than women in Tibeto-Burman communities where women participate more actively in the market sector. Money earned in the market sector allows women to make a measurable contribution to household income, and thus appears to enhance the perception of women as equal partners. In addition, women's decision making input was found to be inversely related to the income status of the household. These results indicate that integrating women into the market economy is not only an efficient use of local resources, but also improves women's status and economic security. The time allocation and decision making data reveal that women play the major role in agricultural production, both as laborers and managers. This suggests the need to train female agricultural extension agents and to make male workers aware of the need to reach female farmers. The results further indicate that involvement of women in the development process leads to lowered fertility and more positive attitudes toward educating female children. Tibeto-Burman women have lower birthrates than Hindu women, perhaps due to their greater economic security and availability of alternate female role models. An extensive methodological annex, including survey instruments, is included.
Population and development: a progress report on ILO research on population, labour, employment and income distribution. 4th ed.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, April, 1982. 98 p.Discusses the work of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) policies on labor employment and income distribution. It aims to further study the interrelationships between demographic change and employment, and incomes and poverty, with a view to contributing to policy design, analysis and choice. The economic-demographic relationship is viewed as being of primary importance in its effect on social systems. The program plans to identify the causes and consequences of temporary migration by means of a detailed sample survey. This project discusses women's productive activities and demographic issues. The former includes all activities which contribute to economic well being, whether or not they are market-oriented, and the latter includes fertility, mortality, and migration. It also attempts to analyze the variety of processes through which population and poverty are related. Other issues discussed are fertility, the economic roles of children, and aspects of household behavior. Current research projects of the ILO are listed.