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[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1992 Sep; 38(3):74-7.The impact of family planning (FP) on the health and lives of women and children is being increasingly recognized in developing countries including India. The acceptance of FP grows when child survival rates improve, and the practice of FP can help avoid deaths of infants and mothers which occur when mothers are too young or too old or when births are spaced too closely. FP could reduce about 25% of the 125,000 maternal deaths which occur each year in India and could help women avoid dangerous illegal abortions. FP used for birth spacing improves infant survival as well as the quality of the mothers' lives. Education is one of the most crucial determinants of a woman's socioeconomic status and, therefore, of their children's health and survival. It is, thus, important for girls to have access to universal primary education. UNICEF supports FP within the context of child survival and development activities such as the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programs which include promotion of accessible contraception. UNICEF also promotes increasing the marriage age to 18 years, a two-child family norm, and communication activities to create a demand for FP. UNICEF is working with the Indian government to provide uneducated adolescent girls with nonformal education and vocational training so they can seek employment rather than early marriage. Through such activities, UNICEF is demonstrating its belief in the far-reaching benefits of FP.
The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects
In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
Intercom. 1980 Jan; 8(1):14.Guyana, a former British colony of about 830,000 population, in the 1970 Census had a composition of 52% East Indian, 31% African, and the balance Amerindian, Portuguese, Chinese, and mixed descent. The crude birth rate is believed to have peaked in 1957-59 at 44.5/1000; by 1978 the birth rate had dropped to about 28.3/1000. The World Fertility Survey of 1975 found that a total fertility rate of 7.1 children/woman in 1961 dropped to 4.4 in 1974. The largest decline in childbearing was in the over 30 age group and the under 20's. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is high; over 95% of a sample of ever-married women had heard of some method. Contraceptive usage is not as high as knowledge; of women exposed and with a partner, 38% said they were contracepting. The pill (11%) and female sterilization (10%) were the 2 most popular effective methods. Usage was lowest among women in common law marriages and visiting unions. Guyanese women overall preferred 4.6 children. Women age 20 thought 3.4 ideal; those over 40 reported 5.8 children as their choice. African women, who marry later than Indian women, preferred more children, 4.8, compared to 4.6 for Indian women. Rural women wanted 4.9 children while urban women wanted 4.3. The crude birth and death rates combine to give a rate of natural increase of 2.1% per year.
In: Hauser PM, ed. World population and development: challenges and prospects. Syracuse, New York, Syracuse University Press, 1979. 440-85.Although there is a growing awareness of the relationship between the status of women, fertility patterns, and economic development many programs and research endeavors in the population field are still based on mistaken assumptions and culturally biased views about the role of women and its significance. Women must be able to exert control over their own lives if family population programs are to meet with success. In economically and politically male dominated societies women cannot obtain this control. In most developing countries women are employed in low status agricultural and domestic service work or are engaged in small trading operations. Programs which seek to reduce family size by simply increasing wormen's work force participation in these employment areas will not be effective. These work roles are not incompatible with child rearing and the increased income may actually increase fertility. To expect the negative relationship between increased labor force participation and lower fertility, which characterizes the industrial countries, to hold under these conditions, is ethnocentrically naive. It should also be recognized that the status and role of women varies from society to society depending on the level of economic development and the religious, political, and cultural traditions of the society. For example, it should not automatically be assumed that the decision to have a child is made mutually by a husband and wife when the couple resides in an extended family. The attitude of relatives as well as the availability of child raising assistance will enter into the decision making process. Many hypothesized relationships in the population field fail to take into consideration differences such as these. Some of these biases can be ameliorated by permitting women to play a more active role in formulating programs aimed at serving them. Tables based on information from many countries show crude birth rates, education levels, and political positions of women according to the % of service workers in the population, and according to the type of society. Other tables show the work status of women according to the % of construction and industry workers and the % of service workers in the population and according to the type of society.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
IPPF Europe Regional Information Bulletin 8(1):2-4. January 1979.A German-speaking subregional working group meeting convened by the IPPF Europe Region in October 1978 discussed planned parenthood in low-birth-rate countries. 3 features characterize current fertility behavior in Europe: 1) a trend toward 2-child families; 2) early marriage (average age 23), with fertility confined to the 1st 6 years of marriage and longer birth intervals; and 3) marital fertility as the main birth rate determinant. Regional, social, and political fertility differences are diminishing. It is doubtful that material incentives to have children (e.g., financial assistance, maternity leaves, credit) are effective in the long term. While a connection is often made between the number of women workers and decreased fertility, it is the form rather than the proportion of women in employment that has changed. Even if women returned to the home, desired family size would not necessarily increase. More research is needed on the fertility effect of living accommodations. The meeting adopted 5 standpoints: 1) attempts to use social, economic, or political grounds to restrict people's ability to freely determine family size violate basic human rights; 2) family size decisions are influenced by a series of personal and social factors, with planned parenthood information and methods having no direct influence; 3) the role of planned parenthood is to subject the timing and frequency of births to self-determined planned action; 4) demographic trends should be analyzed so deficiencies in social and family policies noted can be corrected; and 5) planned parenthood cannot be used in the service of political action to decrease or increase population.
In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, Oct. 1982. 52 p. (World Employment Programme Research. Working Paper WEP 2-21/WP .120; Population and Labour Policies Programme. Working Paper No. 120; UNFPA Project no. GLO/77/P14)Discusses the rewards, socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages of maternity, and the effect these have on fertility in different levels of societies. The author lists the roles of women as maternal, conjugal, domestic, occupational, kin, community, and individual. The maternal role rewards include 1) Economic status: Children help in agricultural production, trade, house work, and can also help secure the husband's provision of such things as food, shelter, land, income, and inheritance to wives. 2) Political status: children may be a woman's only allies in an alien world, and may help to expand the political and economic power of their mothers. 3) Social status: childbirth frequently validates a woman's marital status, and prestige is gained. 4) Psychic status: mutual satisfaction and love in the maternal-child bond is seen as the most emotionally gratifying tie. The author also discusses the demerits of maternity, particularly in developing nations where women can seek employment outside the home and thus become economically independent. Women can also achieve power and influence in a range of nonfamilial contexts. The author hypothesizes that as long as child care delegation is feasible and acceptable, infants are not perceived as constraining a woman's time, and therefore, women will not decide to limit their births or use contraceptives.