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JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jan; (235):1.An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.
Nairobi, Kenya, CAFS, 1992. 27 p.Described in this document are the courses and other activities of the Center for African Family Studies (CAFS), a training institution established by the African Regional Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. CAFS's programs include: 1) training courses aimed at developing program management skills, providing updates on contraceptive technology, disseminating information on family planning and population, and outlining appropriate IEC strategies; 2) seminar and consultations for opinion leaders and policy makers on population issues, including Women and Health issues; 3) research to strengthen family planning and population programs; and 4) workshops to produce teaching materials. The document describes the objectives and contents of the 17 courses offered by CAFS in 1992, as well as its research agenda. Also described are 9 additional courses offered in French.
NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Apr 30; A12.The UN Population Fund's urgent plea for a sustained and concerted program to curb population growth in developing countries is reported. The reasons were to reduce poverty and hunger and to protect the earth's resources. The Fund released current world population figures which place 1992 population at 5.48 billion and project growth to 10 billion in 2050 with a leveling at 11.6 billion in 2150. These figures are 1 billion beyond projections made in 1980. The current rate of growth is at 97 million/year until 2000, 90 million/year until 2025, and 61 million/year until 2050. This rate of growth is the fastest the world has ever experienced. 34% of the rise will occur in Africa, and 97% in developing countries. The projected consequence of this growth is a continued migration to cities, increased hunger and starvation and malnutrition, and an increased pressure on the world's food, water, and other natural resources. This effect amounts to almost crisis conditions which places the world at great risk for future ecological and economic catastrophe. Food production has already lagged behind population growth in 69 of 102 developing countries between 1978-89. An urgent new campaign is called for to promote smaller families, better access to contraception, and better education and health care for women in developing countries. Women's status needs to be raised to allow for women being given property rights and improved access to labor markets. If the effort is successful, the population growth within the next decade could be reduced by 1.5-2 billion. Currently at least 300 million women do no have access to safe and reliable forms of contraception. The number of very poor has risen from 944 million in 1970 to 1.1 billion in 1985. The former strategy of urbanization and rising incomes have been found to be an unnecessary precondition for reducing family size. Poor countries, such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, have nonetheless shown sharp fertility declines with appropriate population policies, e.g., fertility dropped from 6.3 children/women in 1965 to 2.2 children/women in 1987. There have also been similar declines in fertility in China, Cuba, Indonesia, Tunisia and other poor countries. The agency's current budget is $225 million a year, and has been functioning without US aid since the 1976 ban over abortions in China.
Switching back: an experimental intervention of family planning client remotivation and clinic staff retraining: impact upon reacceptance and continuity.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 73-82.In 1990, the Mauritius Family Planning Association presented educational sessions for former clients allowing them to meet f amily planning personnel and other women with similar experiences. It used audiovisual aids to discuss use of modern contraceptives and the advantage of scientific family planning, to dispel myths and rumors, and to explain how different methods could be used to meet their and partners' needs. At the same time, 10 service providers from the experimental clinic underwent a 6 week sensitization and retraining program emphasizing organization for efficiency, counseling skills, and skills to build client self esteem. Researchers observed both the control and experimental clinic for 9 months in 1991. 36 remotivated clients (73% return rate) and 29 mainly former clients who did not attend a session reaccepted a contraceptive method at the experimental clinic. As for the control clinic, 24 remotivated clinics (46% return rate) and 7 mainly former clients reaccepted a method. Both clinics' staff said that the extra clients returned because the 93 remotivated clients recommended or referred them directly to the clinics. The 2 interventions therefore had a spread effect. The experimental clinic did have a much better retention rate than the control clinic (46 client vs. 28 clients), however. Further it had higher continuity rates throughout the study period. At the end of the study, the continuity rate was 93.8 for the experimental clinic and 53.8 for the control clinic. The researchers concluded that the improved clinic services of the experimental clinic due to staff retraining in skills and attentiveness were responsible for the superior retention record and rates of return and continuity. Thus IEC programs that attend to former and potential clients' needs and develop skills and attentiveness of providers improve acceptor and continuity rates.
NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):14-7, 27.Many unwanted births and pregnancies could be avoided by improving instructions for and comprehension of the use of oral contraceptives. Employed less than only the IUD, the oral contraceptive pill is the 2nd- most widely used reversible form of contraception, used by 8% of all married women of reproductive age. 6-20% of pill users, however, fall pregnant due to improper pill use. Improving instructions in the pill pack, ensuring that instructions are correct, and working to facilitate user understanding and motivation have been identified as priorities in maximizing the overall potential effectiveness of the pill against pregnancy. Since packets in developing countries may consist of pills in cycles of 21, 22, 28, or 35 days, providers must also be trained to instruct users in a manner consistent with the written instructions. Pictorial information should be available especially for semi-literate and illiterate audiences. The essay describes recommendation for instruction standardization and simplification put forth by Family Health International, and endorsed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. International Planned Parenthood Federation efforts to increase awareness of this issues are discussed.
Family Coordinator. 1973 Jul; 22(3):331-8.Data collected on behalf of the Planned Parenthood/World Population (PPWP) affiliate to be used in planning a vasectomy education program came from a survey of 387 men and women in Hayward, California, to ascertain the levels of knowledge and prevalence of vasectomy and attitudes toward the operation. The sample was comprised of men and women in 3 income categories, and households were not preselected on a random basis. The survey instrument was a 1-page set of questions, primarily of the closed-ended type which the respondent completed in the presence of the interviewer. The major findings were: 1) PPWP was not identified as a source of aid; 2) most men and women have discussed vasectomy with their spouses; 3) men and women are influenced by attitudes and practices of others with regard to vasectomy; 4) physicians are seen as the main source of information about vasectomy; 5) irreversibility is the major concern of the men and women; and 6) eligible couples can be reached only by a community-side education program. Implications of the survey for a community education program are put into concrete, programmatic terms, indicating lines of direction, points of departure, and crucial ideas sometimes overlooked in service programs. It is concluded that in all areas of a community education program vasectomy should be presented as 1 or a range of alternatives, thus assuring the couple that does elect vasectomy that they really did make a free choice.
World Education Reports. 1979 Sep; 20:11-3.The Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology de Mexico (PIACT de Mexico) developed a series of pamphlets for use by rural, illiterate, Mexican women. The graphic design and pictorial sequence were the most important features of the pamphlets which answered questions such as where to obtain oral contraceptives and how to use them. The director of the material development must have rapport with the target audience, who should be involved in the content, sequence, and identification of symbols. Content must be limited to important messages. 10 messages can be portrayed in a pamphlet. Nonverbal materials require more time and effort than verbal materials. Several groups of women were asked to arrange the individual messages into the sequence that was most logical to them. In a test of the pamphlet's effectiveness, 700 interviews of illiterate women found that 70% understood 13 pages and 60-70% could interpret the remaining 3. The pamphlet was 16 pages long and printed in black and white. Backgrounds were kept simple, and a combination of photographs of professional models and line drawings told the stories.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Presented at the National Conference on Population Management as a Factor in Development including Family Planning, Maseru, Lesotho, April 26-29, 1979. 7 pWomen in many parts of Africa have low status, low literacy levels, feel isolated, and are not recognized for their contributions to national development. If programs can be designed to offer women in developing countries an alternative to motherhood, their status can be raised and the birth rate dropped at the same time. Women should be included in all development planning. Family planning programs should be integrated into other, broader programs. Women should be provided with family planning education, allowed to discuss with and motivate each other, and taught the skills and knowledge to communicate family planning to young people. Family planning programs could be integrated with maternal and child health, nutrition, and literacy programs. The work of women's organizations in these areas is cited. Examples of programs which have successfully integrated family planning into other development areas are cited. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has long been involved in promoting the role of women in family planning development.
Contraception. 1970 Jun; 1(6):409-445.This article reviews the validity of previously published material linking oral contraceptive usage to health hazards. The statistical methods involved in such studies are thoroughly examined, particularly those studies relating oral contraceptive usage to thromboembolic disease incidence. Problems inherent to the basic designs of such studies are discussed. Some relationship between thromembolic disease and oral contraceptive usage has been established. Studies on animals relating oral contraceptive usage with carcinogenesis are inconclusive due to the different metabolic rates obtained for different animals and different strains and the high dosage used to produce tumors. Review of the data relating oral contraceptives with alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, serum lipids, etc., show pure speculation of conclusion. Endrocrine effects persisting after discontinuation of oral contraceptives were rare; apparently both types of steroids play some part. It was suggested that most data on this subject is faulty and filled with fixed opinions which should be avoided.