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Contraception. 2004 May; 69(5):347-351.A recent review article by Smith et al. in The Lancet purports to find a causal relationship between long-term use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and cervical cancer. While we endorse the search for such a relationship, we felt it important to critically examine Smith et al.’s review process and, as a result, we have questions about the validity of their conclusions. In our view, the findings of published articles as presented by Smith et al. do not confirm a causal connection between long-term use of OCs and cervical cancer. Our goal is not to conduct another formal review of the evidence, but to evaluate whether Smith et al. have met the burden of proof for establishing a causal relationship. Given the importance of OCs to women the world over, we urge reproductive health professionals to consider this issue carefully before accepting that a causal relationship exists. (author's)
Action programmes for the qualitative improvements of population education: report of a Regional Consultative Seminar, Bangkok, Thailand, 11-18 Oct. 1982.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1983. 102 p.The main objectives of this seminar were: 1) to provide opportunities for countries to share population education experience; and 2) to develop action programs for the improvement of these programs at the national and regional levels in the formal and nonformal sectors. 27 participants from southeast Asian and Oceania plus observers from international organizations took part. Developments, trends and analysis of problems in population education are discussed. A number of awareness and commitment activities have been carried out. Planning and management of population education programs was discussed, as was reconceptualization of curriculum and materials development. Personnel were trained in formal and nonformal education. There is a need for population education programs for special groups--such as women who face greater fertility risk, and the disadvantaged living in rural and urban slums. Evaluative research needs to address remedial action. The institutionalization of population education is a goal which every country has set. Much remains to be done in the way of documentation and information exchange. Relevant population education components should be integrated not only into formal education, but also with programs in literacy and adult education, rural development, community development, health and nutrition, skill developments and women's development. The goals of the regional program for the development of population education are: 1) to promote among all persons connected with the educational process an understanding of population issues and decision-making processes, attitudes and behavior in regard to population issues; 2) to provide technical advice to members. Of 44 countries, only 20 have on-going population education programs. Some recommendations are: 1) that a regional workshop in developing a mechanism for resource sharing and information exchange be established; and 2) that an ongoing translation program be developed.