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In: Global appeal, 2003. Strategies and programmes, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003. 36-51.Ensuring equal rights and access by refugee women to all aspects of protection and assistance provided by UNHCR, is central to the Office’s refugee protection mandate. This policy commitment is grounded in international agreements and standards, such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UNHCR employs various strategies to make good this commitment, including: elaborating policy guidelines and training materials; providing technical advice and support to operational units; pursuing consultations and partnerships with refugees, particularly women; piloting innovative approaches to empower refugee women; and monitoring and evaluating field-related activities. During the global consultations with refugee women in 2001, the High Commissioner made five commitments: the promotion of women’s equal participation in leadership and decision-making; equal participation in the distribution of food and non-food items; individual registration and documentation of refugee women; support for integrated sexual and gender-based violence programmes at national levels; and the inclusion of sanitary materials within standard assistance packages provided to refugees. These commitments continue to be implemented in practical and measurable ways. (excerpt)
HYGIE. 1992; 11(3):17-27.Commentary is provided on the objectives of health for all as it is linked to education for all. Health education in developed and developing countries is necessary for 1) in-school youth, 2) out-of-school youth, and 3) adult literacy and education. After a general statement of what is involved in educating children for healthy living, international health policy recommendations for strong national policy support of health education are presented. Examples of health learning experiences in school are given for the US, Colombia, Uganda, Chile, Bolivia, Senegal, Syria, Swaziland, and other countries. Opportunities that augment health education curriculum are a sanitary school environment, maintenance of a school health service, nutritious meals at school, a positive social environment with congenial relationships, and after-school sports and group activities. Links with the community are important for student training and transmission of knowledge and healthy practices to others. Specific attention must be paid to AIDS education, nutrition education, and water supply and sanitation. 8 challenges for action are identified. Health education for out-of-school children (105 million children 6-11 years in 1985) is equally important, particularly since 70% are in developing countries and 60% are girls. The numbers are increasing in spite of UNESCO's efforts to mobilize nations to place health education on national agendas. Most out-of-school youth are served by private organizational efforts. Many of these children are destitute without families or from very poor landless families in rural areas. Brazil's program for street youth and Bangladesh's program for functional literacy in short-term, part-time learning help to fill the need. Underprivileged children also reside in urban areas and may not value or be able to afford school. The health sector needs to identify target groups and programs that are appropriate to children's requirements. Information is needed on health hazards, skills to avoid hazards, and a supportive environment. 9 points for action are identified. Adult literacy programs are necessary for survival and improving the quality of life. Joint ventures with other development efforts are common. Women's functional literacy is a separate challenge. 5 actions are identified. A worldwide and multisectoral commitment is needed.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
New Delhi, India, WHO, SEARO, 1988. , iv, 96 p. (SEARO Regional Health Papers no. 17)Information and education for health (IEH) was the terminology established by the World Health Organization in 1982, in an attempt to focus a broader perspective on primary health care (PHC). In southeastern Asia there are many changes taking place and realization that to attain health for all (HFA), that people need IEH. The media professionals are getting involved more and the relation between health and information groups is getting closer and stronger with the use of the mass media. Also the involvement of other groups can help in the attaining of informed public, to participate in the HFA 2000 movement. There are efforts to train more groups, at the community level, to deliver IEH and to improve the quality, content, and methods of training. Community leaders, teachers, and religious leaders are getting involved in IEH distribution. Yet the health education structure in these countries is tight and narrow and procedures are top- down with little community involvement. There are no groups beyond the district level that take prime responsibility for IEH. and policy makers and educators need more IEH orientation, to make them integrate education for health and information and use more resources. The production of materials is still centralized, monitoring and evaluation programs are not effective and there is little research on IEH present. To accomplish this task the region will need to find additional resources, strengthen organizational structures in the inter-sectoral and community areas, and use more effectively public quantity of personal for IEH planning and implementation is needed.
An evaluation of Pathfinder's early marriage education program in Indonesia, November-December 1984.
Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, Pathfinder Fund, 1986 Feb. 41 p. (Pathfinder Fund Working Papers No. 4)Indonesian government officials determined in the early 1970's that an increase in marriage age as well as in the use of contraceptives would be needed to reduce the country's growth rate. In 1974, the Marriage Law Reform Act increased the minimun marriageable age, but compliance was rare. In 1981, Pathfinder initiated a campaign to address this. The 1st objective was to educate influentials (e.g. religious leaders). The 2nd objective was to gather information and promote discussion of societal norms that lead to early marriage and childbearing. The underlying assumptions were that non-compliance arose from a lack of knowledge about the marriage law and that norms promoting early marriage and fertility were amenable to change. The program reviewed in this working paper covers 6 projects with 5 prominent Indonesian organizations--3 women's groups, a national public health association, and a branch of the Family Planning Coordinating Board. The activities began with national seminars to discuss objectives. National and local-level activities followed, ranging from the publication of a national bulletin to training marriage counselors. Women's groups incorporated the education program into their ongoing functions. Program effects were widespread. Evaluators' assessment in 1984 found that the controversial topic of adolescent fertility has been intensively discussed at national and local levels. Their recommendations include: focusing work on large-impact organizations, evaluation of certain projects, support for various projects, concentrating on key issues. The training project management should be integrated into Pathfinder's schedule. Studies should be performed to make sure this desin is not too ambitious. Baseline data should be incorporated. The 2-year approach should be extended to 5, since the impact of marriage age legislation will not be felt for several years.
Women, population and development, statement made at the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 56)The World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the World Plan of Action adopted at the Mexico Conference in 1975 had one common goal--the full integration of women in the development process. Women today play a limited role in many national communities. If this role is to be strengthened and expanded, it will be necessary to focus on eliminating discrimination and removing obstacles to their education, training, employment and career advancement. Within this framework, UNFPA has given support to projects in 5 specific areas: 1) education and training in health, nutrition, child care, family planning, and vocational skills; 2) increasing participation of rural women in planning, decision-making and implementation at the community level; 3) income generating activities, such as marketing, social service occupations, and in the legal, educational and political systems; 4) educating women about their social and legal rights; and 5) widening women's access to communication networks. Between 1969 and 1979, approximately US$22 million was provided by UNFPA to projects dealing with the status of women. Projects in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health services and family planning received more than US$312 million, which constitutes more than 50% of the total UNFPA programs.
Equality of educational opportunities for girls and women. Report of a Meeting of a Consultative Panel for Asia and Oceania 1-8 October 1979.
Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 173 p. (BKS/80/RHM/140-500)A meeting held in Bangkok in October 1979 identified obstacles to be overcome if women and girls are to have equal access to education at all levels in Asia and Oceania, and had as a goal to strengthen collaboration between the UN and other agencies within the framework of the UN Decade for Women. Although no countries studied reported official government discrimination against girls and women in education, all stated that fewer girls participate in educational activities and that a major obstacle is in the attitudes of parents and communities. Dropout and wastage is greater among girls than boys and is very severe in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan; in countries where total enrollment is low there is the greatest difference in the boy/girl ratio. Forces that inhibit girls' schooling include social changes such as new kinds of employment, parents' requirement that girls help in the home or field and desire to spend what little money is available on the boy's schooling, early marriage, shortage of female teachers, and lack of parents' literacy. Programs designed to overcome inequalities are limited. In India, there is a program to provide universal education to all boys and girls between 6-14 years of age, and scholarships exist to train and provide housing for women teachers. Other countries' efforts have met with little success, but special efforts are being made to provide nonformal education for older girls and women to include literacy, numeracy, home managment, child care, health, sanitation, nutrition, and skill development for productive employment. Pakistan's program aims at serving primary level girls whereas those in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, and Pakistan aim at older girls and women. The traditional "Mohalla" girls' education program in Pakistan has recently added, wtih government support, homemaking and other areas of training to its religious curriculum. Suggestions for improvement include: 1) flexible school hours, 2) proximity of day care centers and pre-schools to primary schools, 3) making available opportunities for earning while learning, 4) devise curricula drawn from real life experiences of girls and women, 5) obtain more women teachers, 6) provide boys with learning experiences in "girls'" subjects, 7) reorganize expenditures to benefit girls and women, and 8) encourage nongovernment organizations which enhance female status to deal with educational programs.
Action programmes for the qualitative improvements of population education: report of a Regional Consultative Seminar, Bangkok, Thailand, 11-18 Oct. 1982.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1983. 102 p.The main objectives of this seminar were: 1) to provide opportunities for countries to share population education experience; and 2) to develop action programs for the improvement of these programs at the national and regional levels in the formal and nonformal sectors. 27 participants from southeast Asian and Oceania plus observers from international organizations took part. Developments, trends and analysis of problems in population education are discussed. A number of awareness and commitment activities have been carried out. Planning and management of population education programs was discussed, as was reconceptualization of curriculum and materials development. Personnel were trained in formal and nonformal education. There is a need for population education programs for special groups--such as women who face greater fertility risk, and the disadvantaged living in rural and urban slums. Evaluative research needs to address remedial action. The institutionalization of population education is a goal which every country has set. Much remains to be done in the way of documentation and information exchange. Relevant population education components should be integrated not only into formal education, but also with programs in literacy and adult education, rural development, community development, health and nutrition, skill developments and women's development. The goals of the regional program for the development of population education are: 1) to promote among all persons connected with the educational process an understanding of population issues and decision-making processes, attitudes and behavior in regard to population issues; 2) to provide technical advice to members. Of 44 countries, only 20 have on-going population education programs. Some recommendations are: 1) that a regional workshop in developing a mechanism for resource sharing and information exchange be established; and 2) that an ongoing translation program be developed.
World Health Forum. 1983; 4(4):362-4.The Save the Children Fund opened a maternal and child health clinic in Dhankuta bazaar, Nepal in 1977. Because of the inefficient preventive aspect of the services, a study was undertaken to identify factors that would make people decide to adopt new practices related to health. This article discusses the results of this study. Food productivity and shortages, work responsibilities and lack of knowledge of certain development services are mainly responsible for the present situation in regard to maternal and child health in this area. Ignorance of matters related to health and nutrition, and economic constraints preventing families from adopting new ideas were the 2 causes of malnutrition and ill health. The child health support program was created by coordinated efforts of the Women's Club and the Save the Children Fund. The Women's Clubs are responsible for teaching and training village women and girls in agriculture, income generating activities, health, and reading and writing. Improvement in teaching of health and agriculture in schools was also sought. This led to the creation of a mobile teacher-training program. This program also provides an opportunity to stimulate an awareness among the teachers of the importance of their role in the development of children's attitudes towards health and agriculture.