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  1. 1

    Population issues: briefing kit 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. [2], 21 p.

    The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
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  2. 2

    The disappearing forests.

    Clarke R

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], [1988]. [8] p. (UNEP Environment Brief No. 3)

    2,970 million hectares of tropical forests comprise 20% of the land surface, almost all of which lie in developing countries. 11.3 million hectares of tropical forest vanish each year, however. 26.5% of the world's tropical forests are in Brazil. Other countries with many tropical forests are Zaire (9.2%); and Peru, Angola, Bolivia, and India; each with 3%. Expansion of agricultural land is the leading cause of deforestation. More specifically it is shortened fallow periods which cause deforestation. In developing countries, forests are especially valuable because they fulfill many subsistence needs of rural dwellers (e.g., fuelwood, nuts, fruit, medicines, and ropes), conserve water and soil, provide people with industrial products and thus foreign exchange, and hold genetic resources. The world needs to work together to wisely manage tropical forests on a sustainable basis. Governments must reassess existing policies that favor agricultural development and rapid forest exploitation. Small-scale projects in which local people especially women plan the work with qualified foresters and execute it tend to be successful. 3 UN agencies prepared a global plan of action for the wise management of tropical forests, but they could not persuade 21 nations with tropical forests such as Brazil, Burma, Colombia, and Zaire to adopt it. A new global plan developed by 2 of those agencies, UN Development Programme and the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute appears to have more potential for success. Development agencies, international lending organizations, governments, and the private sector will invest US$8,000 million in topical forests over 5 years. Most of the 21 nations have agreed to take part in the plan. The areas of investment include fuelwood and agroforestry, land use on upland watersheds, management for industrial uses, and conservation.
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