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  1. 1

    Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)

    Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Adding a gender dimension to economic decision-making - includes related article on economic aspects of women's unpaid work - Fourth World Conference on Women - Cover Story.

    Seufert-Barr N

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Jun; 32(2):[3] p..

    Women hold a meagre 1 per cent of executive positions in the 1,000 largest corporations based outside the United States. The proportion is higher, at 8 per cent, in the 1,000 largest corporations in the United States, but only a handful of women hold the top-most positions, according to a recent study by the UN Secretariat Division for the Advancement of Women. The same is true for the web of powerful global and regional multi-lateral institutions, where "women have been virtually excluded from key decision-making positions and from negotiating roles", as well as national trade policy, where the proportion of women is "insignificant", asserts Secretary-General Boutros Boutros- Ghali in a 1994 report. The result: the proportion of women in economic decision-making is not only "very low", states the report, but also "a gender dimension has been absent from macroeconomic policies and decisions regarding resource distribution, wealth creation and exchange". (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Rwanda promotes women decision-makers - Women in reconstruction. [Le Rwanda favorise les prises de décisions émanant des femmes - Les femmes et la reconstruction]

    Remmert C

    UN Chronicle. 2003 Dec; 40(4):[3] p..

    The Women Waging for Peace Policy Commission analyzes women's contributions to reconstruction processes through case studies of post-conflict societies. In its first report, "Strengthening Governance: The Role of Women in Rwanda's Transition", published in September 2003, the Commission reviews the successes and failures of structures and policies designed to promote the integration of women in reconstruction and governance. It shows that their participation in reconstruction processes are essential to the stability of such societies. The Women Waging Commission, in its own research on the 1994 Rwandan violence, focused on gender dynamics--an aspect often overshadowed by ethnic questions in most discussions of the phenomenon. In its study, the Commission noticed that Rwanda's transitional government had established structures for female inclusion and had implemented progressive gender policies that could serve as an example to other post-conflict societies. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Gender mainstreaming in European municipalities.

    Gaspard F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Framing issues and seizing opportunities: The UN, NGOs and women's rights.

    Joachim J

    International Studies Quarterly. 2003 Jun; 47(2):247-274.

    How, why, and under what conditions are NGOs able to influence state's interests? To answer these questions, I examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health. I develop a theoretical framework drawing on both the agenda-setting and social movement literature. I suggest that NGOs attempt to influence states interests by framing problems, solutions, and justifications for political action. Whether they are successful in mobilizing support is contingent on the dynamic interaction of primarily two factors: ((1)) the political opportunity structure in which NGOs are embedded, comprising access to institutions, the presence of influential allies, and changes in political alignments and conflicts; and ((2)) the mobilizing structures that NGOs have at their disposal, including organizational entrepreneurs, a heterogenous international constituency, and experts. I find that in the beginning of the agenda-setting process, the influence of NGOs is rather limited, their frames are highly contested, and structural obstacles outweigh organizational resources. However, over time the influence of NGOs increases. As they establish their own mobilizing structures, they become capable of altering the political opportunity structure in their favor, and their frames gain in acceptance and legitimacy. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Declaration of intentions of the IPPF European Network, Brussels, 27 June 2003.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. European Network

    Choices. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Europe. 2003 Autumn; 35.

    Reaffirms the human rights basis of sexual and reproductive rights and the need to preserve, guarantee and expand these rights for all peoples in Europe and around the world; underlines its commitment to prioritise the human rights approach to sexuality and reproduction in all activities of the federation; recalls that sexual and reproductive rights are already the subject of international human rights law, jurisprudence, treaties and conventions; reaffirms that the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights outlining 12 rights provides the framework for work in progressing towards the full recognition of sexual rights as human rights; welcomes the recognition of other civil society groups of the human rights basis of their specific work in sexuality, reproduction, health and equality. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Understanding the links: globalization, health sector reform, gender and reproductive health.

    Evers B; Juarez M

    New York, New York, Ford Foundation, 2003. [45] p.

    The connections between globalization and women’s reproductive health and rights are not straightforward, and as yet, there is little systematic evidence exploring these linkages. The following paper will examine more closely what is meant by globalization and attempt to analyze its broad implications for women’s health and well-being, albeit largely from first principles. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Making childbirth safer through promoting evidence-based care.

    Global Health Council

    Washington, D.C., Global Health Council, 2002 May. 20 p. (Technical Report)

    This document includes the following chapters: Towards an Evidence-Based Approach to Decision Making; Reducing Maternal Mortality Through Evidence-Based Treatment of Eclampsia; Reducing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Routine Use of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor; The WHO Reproductive Health Library (RHL) Better Births Initiative: A Programme for Action in Middle- and Low-Income Countries; and Using Evidence to Save the Lives of Mothers.
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  9. 9

    Working to empower women. UNFPA's experience in implementing the Beijing Platform for Action.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2000. 24 p.

    This report covers the Beijing's 12 Critical Areas of Concern: women and poverty; education and training of women; women and health; violence against women; women and armed conflict; women and the economy; women in power and decision-making; institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women; human rights of women; women and the media; women and the environment; and the girl-child. It incorporates new and related objectives, drawn from practical experiences, for addressing women's needs and rights in a holistic and integrated way.
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  10. 10

    [Beijing + 5: the gains should be preserved] Pekin + 5: les acquis ont pu etre maintenus.

    de Sainte Lorette C

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Jun-Jul; (59):4-5.

    A special UN session was held in New York during June 6-10, 2000, to evaluate the progress achieved since the Beijing Conference on Women. According to Françoise Gaspard, France’s representative to the UN Commission on Women’s Rights, negotiations at the special session were particularly difficult. It is always hard to create a satisfactory conference declaration when the rule of the day is consensus. A few countries always oppose such consensus. Latin American countries, however, abandoned their former position similar to that of Iran and the Vatican to instead adopt far more progressive stances upon reproductive rights. Progress is occurring slowly. While still not enough, the conference’s final statement marks a certain number of advances in the fight against violence, women’s role in decision-making, and education, with no steps back in the areas of contraception and abortion. The resulting declaration is therefore not regressive, even though it could have been stronger. It will hopefully serve as a reference statement which nongovernmental organizations will be able to cite when reminding countries of their obligations. Countries should get together to discuss the rising level of prostitution. The important roles of NGOs and French-country involvement were also recognized during the conference, as well as the priorities of education and funding.
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  11. 11

    Who benefits? Measuring the differential impact of new technologies.

    Mitter S

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 219-42.

    This document (the 10th chapter in a UN Gender Working Group book on the overlay of science and technology, sustainable human development, and gender issues) highlights how new technologies are improving the quality and quantity of women's modern sector employment, identifies the gender differential effects of these technologies, explores the socioeconomic reasons for such differentials, and points out where policy-makers can intervene to redress gender imbalances. Discussion of the relevance and definition of new technologies includes a look at trade flows and technology transfer. Description of the impact of technological changes 1) considers whether biotechnology is a friend or enemy of women; 2) highlights the effects of computer-aided technology on automated manufacturing, the organization of work, and information technology in the service industries; and 3) looks at the telecommunication revolution and distant working as well as the relocation of data-entry jobs. After an assessment of women in the decision-making process, the chapter explores the impact of new technologies on small- and medium-sized enterprises, on labor standards, and on training for corporate jobs. Finally, the chapter offers a research agenda to guide policy-makers, outlines the role and concerns of UN agencies, and describes a new research initiative that is focusing on improving the advocacy skills of organizations of women workers by giving them access to key information.
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  12. 12

    Key paths for science and technology. On the road to environmentally sustainable and equitable development.

    Kettel B

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 27-53.

    This document is the second chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter identifies key pathways for S&T research and policy formulation that will support women's environmental perceptions, needs, and interests. The introduction notes that women and men have different environmental needs and interests; that these differences are manifest in gender-based division of labor, access to resources, and knowledge systems; and that the emerging "gender and environments analysis" framework reveals the potentially negative effect on women, families, and the environment of S&T interventions geared towards men's needs and interests. This chapter, therefore, uses a gender and environment approach to reveal how issues of gender equity, environmental sustainability, and S&T for development overlap and to outline ways to create a gender-sensitive approach to the use of S&T in development interventions. After addressing the topics of 1) the invisibility of women in the development process, 2) discovering women and the environment, 3) the price of complacency and gender bias, and 4) shaping a gender-sensitive agenda for sustainable and equitable development, the chapter presents key policy themes and suggestions for future research in the areas of 1) the environment and women's health; 2) alleviating women's poverty; 3) women, technology, and entrepreneurship; 4) environmental literacy and access to information; and 5) national-level participation and decision-making. The chapter then reviews the role of UN agreements and other key documents and ends by reiterating the importance of following the five key pathways identified above to achieve gender sensitive S&T research and policy formation.
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  13. 13

    Choice and a better life in the dusty heart of India.

    Datta B


    Since its inception in 1995, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of India's Small family By Choice project has developed three broad strategies to increase reproductive choice for 4.35 million people living in three of the poorest districts of the country: providing quality clinical services, improving access to health care, and stimulating community participation. The FPA provides scholarships so that girls can attend school where they will acquire a deeper understanding of the need for small families along with employable skills. Another FPA project offers impoverished young women in urban areas the chance to acquire income-generating skills. Trainees also attend health camps where they are provided with gynecological check-ups, pre/postnatal care, and counseling. Other FPA-sponsored programs include community-based adult literacy classes; child care centers in the project's main health clinic; establishment of community-based delivery rooms and training of midwives; community-based distribution of contraception; and management of a full clinic in Bhopal. The project reaches out to marginalized prostitutes by subsidizing a hostel close to a school for their children. Such flexible, needs-based innovations are having an enormous impact. The programs provide a range of choices of high quality contraceptives and have even been successful in promoting the condom. The clinic has served 554 patients from July to early September 1997 and provides counseling to help women improve their decision-making skills.
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  14. 14

    From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.

    This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
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  15. 15

    Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)

    This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
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  16. 16

    UNIFEM annual report 1991.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, UNIFEM, 1992. [2], 28 p.

    The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) provides direct financial and technical support to low-income women in developing countries and funds activities designed to incorporate women into mainstream development decision-making. This annual report for 1991 opens with messages from the administrator of the UN Development Programme and the UNIFEM director. The report continues with a discussion of progress for women in the post-Cold War era where reform was instituted without the input of women. UNIFEM actions on behalf of women on the international, national, and local levels are described, and key findings are reported from the publication "The World's Women: Trends and Statistics 1970-1990" (sponsored by UNIFEM and other agencies). The report also describes UNIFEMs actions on behalf of refugees, 75% of whom are women and children. The regional report for Africa highlights programs in Mail, where women were instrumental in organizing a water and environmental sanitation project, and in Mozambique, where UNIFEM set up a community-based credit system for farmers. Programs in Asia and the Pacific included the organization of workshops on the topic of women and pesticides and the provision of special training for census workers in India that resulted in the recognition of the economic activity of women in census data. In the Latin American and Caribbean region, a Bolivian program to increase the nation's milk production led to improvements for 500 peasant women in eight communities while, in Chile, UNIFEM has been conducting research and training designed to improve the lives of the indigenous Mapuches. The report lists UNIFEM's sources of support and the organization's management priorities, financial reports, and advisors and representatives.
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  17. 17

    Women's voices '94.

    In: Beyond the numbers. A reader on population, consumption, and the environment, edited by Laurie Ann Mazur. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1994. 267-72.

    Women's health advocates from Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, the United States, and Western Europe in conjunction with the International Women's Health Coalition drafted a declaration on population policies in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Population policies were viewed as part of development policies that were based on principles of social justice and the promotion of well being. Conditions that affected both men's and women's health were identified as unequal distribution of wealth, changing patterns of sexual and family relationships, political and economic policies that restricted female access to health services and methods of fertility regulation, and laws, beliefs, and practices that denied women's basic human rights. The government is in a powerful position to affect conditions. Current economic conditions globally jeopardize governments willingness and ability to establish appropriate support. The design, structure, and implementation of population policies needs to be changed. The empowerment of women should be the goal of population policies and a goal in its own right. Fundamental ethical principles must provide the foundation of population policies and assure the following: women's ability to make responsible decisions, women's right to determine the nature of their sexuality, women's right and social responsibility to determine how, how many, and when to have children, men's personal and social responsibility for their own sexual behavior and fertility, the need for nonviolence, equity, noncoercion, and mutual respect between men and women, women's right to be involved in policy making and implementation, and women's right to not be subordinated to the interests of partners, family members, ethnic groups, religious institutions, health providers, researchers, policymakers, the state, or anyone else. There were six basic program requirements. It is necessary that women make decision maker, have financial resources, have a women's health movement, and accountability mechanisms are available.
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  18. 18

    U.S. report to the UN on the status of women 1985-1994.

    United States. Department of State

    [Unpublished] [1995]. iv, 112 p.

    This US government report opens with a general description of the changes which have taken place in the composition and life circumstances of US women between the 1980 and 1990 census. The status of US women is then described under the main headings of equality, development, and peace. Equality is determined in terms of the number of women in elective office, in appointive office, and employed in federal agencies; the relationship of women to the judicial system; women decision-makers in the private sector; and governmental and nongovernmental actions and mechanisms to advance the status of women. Development is explored through a consideration of poverty, aging, teenage pregnancy, welfare reform, housing, health, education, employment status, wages and benefits, deterring sexual harassment, access to vocational resources, and the environment. The discussion of peace centers on violence against women, women in the military, refugee resettlement, and advocacy for peace.
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  19. 19

    Approaching STDs and AIDS on a global scale. Interview with Peter Piot, Associate Director, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), World Health Organisation (WHO).

    AIDS BULLETIN. 1993 Jul; 2(2):4-5.

    Dr. Piot became involved with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) through his early involvement as Chairman of the WHO Steering Committee on the Epidemiology of AIDS. He responds to questions about the HIV pandemic. Although researchers realized early on that HIV could be transmitted sexually and suspected that condom use could confer protection against HIV infection as it does against other STDs such as gonorrhea and syphilis, only minimal light was shed to the public on the association of HIV with STDs. The delay in clearly pointing out the association stemmed from professionals' lack of desire to further stigmatize HIV/AIDS by designating it as a STD. Furthermore, many Western hematologists had little interest in STDs, and STD control in many countries tended to be coercive. Regarding the risk of HIV infection, Dr. Piot notes that the presence of a genital ulcer caused by syphilis, chancroid, or herpes increases one's risk 10-20-fold; risk increases 3- to 4-fold where gonorrhea or chlamydia are present. Acknowledging the association between STDs and the risk of contracting HIV and understanding the need to control STDs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, the WHO's STD program was brought under the auspices of and integrated with the GPA. People, and especially women, who may present at STD clinics for treatment are prime candidates for much needed help in avoiding HIV infection; Dr. Piot notes that unlike men, many women do not realize they are infected with an STD until complications develop. Dr. Piot's recent appointment at GPA means the WHO will increase its focus upon the prevention and treatment of STDs. The WHO favors an integrated program approach. Additionally, the GPA plans to develop a short-list of recommended drugs for treating STDs and hopes to develop ways for developing countries to buy them affordably with help from UNICEF and the World Bank. Finally, Dr. Piot explains that, with some exceptions, the prevalence of STDs is lower in developed countries and, therefore, less of a prevention priority.
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  20. 20

    Women in public life.

    WOMEN 2000. 1992; (2):1-23.

    The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995.
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  21. 21

    Population policy forum. Beginning with individual women.

    Puri S

    CONSCIENCE. 1991 Sep-Oct; 12(5):6.

    When IPPF was formed in 1952, its driving force was concern for women, for women's health and women's reproductive rights. 40 years on, those same issues are still at the heart of IPPF's policies and programs. Marge Berer has made a plea for a feminist approach within international family planning, and IPPF is in complete agreement that women's needs and choices should be paramount. All individuals and couples must have the basic human right to decide freely and responsible the number and spacing of their children. Women must also have the right to receive full information and counselling to choose their contraceptive method. Our secretary general, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, stresses that if family planning is to be effective, it must always begin with the individual, taking the whole issue of reproductive health into consideration. Men must share the responsibility for sexual behavior and family planning, and real equality will only be attained when women are empowered to regulate their own fertility. As nongovernmental health care organizations, IPPF's member associations offering services in 133 countries are able to work towards the principles of informed choice and voluntary family planning--even where governments may not be giving women the choices they deserve. (full text)
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  22. 22

    Is there a better way?

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade

    New York, New York, UNDP, Division of Information, 1985 Jun. 10 p.

    Women are mainly responsible for household sanitation and the provision of water for their families, and any absence of adequate facilities severely affects the health of women, their families, and their communities. Recognizing this fact, the United Nations launched the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in 1980 to address these problems. All too often, however, billions of dollars and hundreds of technicians are deployed to drill wells, install pumps, and construct latrines. The majority of these projects prove unsuccessful because women and other community users were not included in the planning and designing of the projects. The introduction of these technologies in communities without considering the primary gathers and users of water often leads to misuse, underuse, and disrepair (WHO predicts that 40-80% of hand pumps break down within 3 years of installation). To correct his situation, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) introduced an interregional project to support and promote women's participation in drinking water and sanitation development. UNDP has organized projects that demonstrate how women and communities can successfully assist in project design, execution, and maintenance. The projects' efforts show that women involved in water and sanitation facilities make the facilities more effective and enduring. This is because women are consulted and actively involved in all phases. In addition, by being participants of decision making bodies, they have control of the solutions to their water supply, sanitation, related health problems. Further financial, technical, and information support are needed to continue the success of water and sanitation projects.
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  23. 23

    Women and the subsistence sector. Economic participation and household decision making in Nepal.

    Acharya M; Bennett L

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983 Jan. 140 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 526)

    The relationship between women's economic participation and their input into household decision making was investigated in 7 village studies in Nepal. 2 distinct cultural traditions were represented in the sample: Indo-Aryan/Hindu and Tibeto-Burman/Buddhist-Animist. The village economy is conceptualized in 4 concentric spheres: 1) household domestic work, 2) household agricultural production activity, 3) work in the local market economy, and 4) employment in the wider economy beyond the village. Aggregate data revealed that women are responsible for 86%, 57%, 38%, and 25% of the input into these 4 spheres, respectively. It was hypothesized that women's participation in the market economy increases their status (defined in terms of household decision making), while confinement to nonmarket subsistence production and domestic work reduces women's status. This hypothesis was confirmed. Women in the more orthodox Hindu communities, who are largely confined to domestic and subsistence production, were found to play a less significant role in major household economic decisions than women in Tibeto-Burman communities where women participate more actively in the market sector. Money earned in the market sector allows women to make a measurable contribution to household income, and thus appears to enhance the perception of women as equal partners. In addition, women's decision making input was found to be inversely related to the income status of the household. These results indicate that integrating women into the market economy is not only an efficient use of local resources, but also improves women's status and economic security. The time allocation and decision making data reveal that women play the major role in agricultural production, both as laborers and managers. This suggests the need to train female agricultural extension agents and to make male workers aware of the need to reach female farmers. The results further indicate that involvement of women in the development process leads to lowered fertility and more positive attitudes toward educating female children. Tibeto-Burman women have lower birthrates than Hindu women, perhaps due to their greater economic security and availability of alternate female role models. An extensive methodological annex, including survey instruments, is included.
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  24. 24

    Depo-Provera debate revs up at FDA.

    Sun M

    Science. 1982 Jul 30; 217(4558):424-8.

    The record of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) actions regarding Depo-Provera, a medroxyprogesterone acetate, as an injectable contraceptive and the international implications are reviewed. In September 1982 a special panel of scientists began deliberations to recommend whether Depo-Provera should be approved for use as an injectable contraceptive. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has been asked by developing countries to furnish the drug but will not export drugs that are not approved by USFDA. More than 80 countries have approved the drug. Advocates for USFDA approval include the Upjohn Company (manufacturer of the drug), World Health Organization, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Crisis Committee, and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The opposition includes the Health Research Group affiliated with Ralph Nader, the National Women's Health Network, and several right-to-life groups. Hesitation by USFDA is related to laboratory animal studies which suggest that Depo-Provera is a potential human carcinogen. Upjohn conducted a 7 year study with 16 beagles and a 10 year study with Rhesus monkeys; both of the test animals developed more tumors than the controls. Questions were raised about using the animals since the response of these two species to the drug and the human response are not necessarily comparable. Limited approval has been recommended twice by expert advisory committees in 1974 and 1975, but USFDA refused both times. It is suspected that Korea, Taiwan, Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen reversed their approval as a result of the latest USFDA rejection. This final decision will have major economic and social implications and will assume international importance.
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  25. 25

    The women of rural Asia.

    Whyte RO; Whyte P

    Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)

    This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
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