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  1. 1
    352071
    Peer Reviewed

    Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria.

    Alo OA; Gbadebo B

    Journal of Women's Health. 2011 Nov; 20(11):1655-1661.

    Background: The practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is widespread in Nigeria and varies from one ethnic group to another. In 1994, Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly in a resolution to eliminate the practice, and since then, several steps has been taken to achieve this objective. Methods: Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly sixteen years ago in a resolution to eliminate female genital mutilation. This study uses data from 420 women aged 15-49 years who had at least one surviving daughter to investigate changes in FGC prevalence among mothers and daughters. The sample was systematically selected through stratified random sampling across the six states of southwest Nigeria. Focus group discussion, and an in-depth interview with fourteen women considered to be specialist in FGC were also held to compliment data generated from the interview. Results: The analysis indicated an FGC prevalence rate of 75% and 71% for mothers and daughters, respectively. It further indicated that the practice is rooted in tradition despite the fact that 52% of the respondents are aware of the health hazards of FGC. Educated mothers were found to be less likely to favor the cutting of their daughters. Conclusions: It is suggested that educational campaigns aimed toward parents should be intensified. Legal recourse, prohibition of operations, improvement in women's status, and sex education are also suggested as means of eradicating the practice.
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  2. 2
    071248

    Educating girls.

    Bellew R; Raney L; Subbarao K

    FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT. 1992 Mar; 54-6.

    20 years of research has established that the economic and social benefits of women's primary and secondary schooling are far reaching. The more educated a population's women are, the fewer children they have, and the ones they do have are healthier. However, social tradition and other economic considerations often force families to exclude young girls from education in favor of boys. The safety of young girls is one consideration as well as their value as household labor. There is also a false impression that the good of the community is served if boys are educated, but not so the same for girls. Evidence has been complied to show that in populations where women are more educated, the level of poverty is lower. Because society gains by educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have previously kept girls under educated? The government of Bangladesh and Guatemala have been very successful with scholarship programs at the primary and secondary level. In Bangladesh the enrollment of females in secondary school almost doubled. The program is also credited with increasing attendance of primary schools, increasing labor force participation, postponing the age of marriage and reducing fertility. Between 1972-80 there were 105 Bank assisted primary and secondary school programs. Of these 20% identified the presence of genderissues, but only 10% included significant actions to improve females enrollment. Between 1981-1991 about half of the Bank assisted programs identified the presence of gender issues, and a quarter included significant actions to improve female enrollment.
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