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Health Research Policy and Systems. 2018 May 22; 16(1):42.BACKGROUND: As countries continue to improve their family planning (FP) programmes, they may draw on WHO's evidence-based FP guidance and tools (i.e. materials) that support the provision of quality FP services. METHODS: To better understand the use and perceived impact of the materials and ways to strengthen their use by countries, we conducted qualitative interviews with WHO regional advisors, and with stakeholders in Ethiopia and Senegal who use WHO materials. RESULTS: WHO uses a multi-faceted strategy to directly and indirectly disseminate materials to country-level decision-makers. The materials are used to develop national family planning guidelines, protocols and training curricula. Participants reported that they trust the WHO materials because they are evidence based, and that they adapt materials to the country context (e.g. remove content on methods not available in the country). The main barrier to the use of national materials is resource constraints. CONCLUSIONS: Although the system and processes for dissemination work, improvements might contribute to increased use of the materials. For example, providers may benefit from additional guidance on how to counsel women with characteristics or medical conditions where contraceptive method eligibility criteria do not clearly rule in or rule out a method.
Addressing violence against women in HIV testing and counselling. A meeting report, Geneva, 16-18 January 2006.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p.This report summarizes the discussions and final recommendations from the meeting participants. Section 1 reviews the evidence of the association between HIV testing and serostatus disclosure and women's experiences of violence, describes current strategies to expand access to HIV testing and counselling, and discusses the implications of these various strategies for women. Section 2 describes specific programme approaches to address violence through HIV testing and counselling programmes, including strategies to achieve the following: engage male partners in the HIV testing and counselling process through couple counselling; train and build the capacity of HIV counsellors and other appropriate health care providers to recognize and counsel women at potential risk of violence; integrate HIV testing services into other health-related services, such as those provided to women who have experienced sexual assault; create peer support programmes to support women through the HIV testing and counselling process; and integrate HIV testing and counselling programmes within services for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Finally, section 3 reflects conclusions and identifies specific recommendations made by the meeting participants to address violence against women: as a barrier to women accessing HIV testing and counselling services; in the counselling that is provided to women on how to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners or other members of their social networks; and in the risk reduction counselling provided to women; as part of the post-test support needs of women. (excerpt)
HIV-infected women and their families: psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. vi, 57 p. (Occasional Paper; WHO/RHR/03.07; WHO/HIV/2003.07)This review is divided into three sections. Section one provides a synthesis of the reviewed literature on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, voluntary HIV testing and counselling (VCT), and other issues that impact on the care, psychosocial support and counselling needs of HIV-infected women and their families in the perinatal period. Section two provides examples from around the world of projects that focus on the care and support of women and families, with a focus on MTCT. The fi nal section contains recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV-infected women and families. (excerpt)
The impact of HIV / AIDS on Southern Africa's children: poverty of planning and planning of poverty.
Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, Southern African Regional Poverty Network, 2002. , 26 p. (Save the Children UK: Southern Africa Scenario Planning Paper)In the initial discussion of this paper the terms of reference began: “Save the Children has not been adept at managing its programme planning processes in the region. Country based strategic planning has often been a tortuous business which has alienated our staff because of the abstract language used. It has been a time consuming and often disjointed process leaving most participants dissatisfied with the final planning document”. Save the Children (SCF) is not alone in this. HIV/AIDS is changing the environment in which we operate. It will have effects as serious as the plague in medieval Europe and we do not know how to deal with it. In effect there is a complete poverty in planning which will result in considerable impoverishment and misery in much of Southern Africa. One new way to assess the situation would be to through developing scenarios. HEARD has some experience in this having been part of a team working with Shell South Africa on developing scenarios for their Southern African region. We therefore agreed to prepare a draft paper, and this was discussed with SCF staff. We did not agree to follow the terms of reference exactly but rather to prepare the paper with scenarios. The first draft was completed and sent for comment on 21st June with a deadline for comment of 27th June (Alan Whiteside was away from 27th June). The first draft showed up one major problem. SCF must be part of the brainstorming. We know what HIV/AIDS means in broad terms, we have some ability at developing broad scenarios but we do not know what SCF does or what these will mean for them. In effect while HEARD’s work is nearly complete that of SCF is only just beginning. (excerpt)
In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 30-2. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)All social policies dealing with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) must be scrutinized in terms of their impact on the family, specifically enhancement of the family unit to cope with the impact of AIDS and promotion of an integrated approach in which families are kept together whenever possible. Thus, health and social welfare interventions should seek to support and complement the family as a functional unit rather than to replace it. Family counseling and self- help groups should be organized to enhance coping skills and prevent family disruption. Young families in particular lack the problem solving skills required to deal with the crisis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the marital conflict this diagnosis creates. Not only can infected individuals become isolated within their own families, but the family unit itself is often shunned by the community. The psychosocial stress is exacerbated by the poverty that results from the frequent loss of work and income. HIV-infected illicit drug users tend to isolate themselves from sources of medical care and are unable to provide infected offspring with the care required. The families of homosexual and bisexual men may become aware of the parent's sexual orientation at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection. Uninfected mothers become overwhelmed with dealing with unpredictable medical needs of family members under conditions of economic and emotional stress, and there is a need for respite care. Since women play a key role in maintaining the family unit, government policies should seek to empower women and children to express their own needs.
Determinants of induced abortion: the role of perceived and experienced contraceptive side effects and lack of counseling.
[Unpublished] . , 30,  p.In 1989, the World Health Organization (WHO) Task Force for Social Science Research on Reproductive Health initiated 27 projects in 20 developing countries to identify the determinants and consequences of induced abortion. A significant proportion of women in these studies had used a modern contraceptive method (generally the pill) in the past, but had recently discontinued method use or switched to a less effective method. This finding appears consistent with Luker's postulate that women who have both knowledge of and access to modern methods but are not contracepting at the time of abortion have calculated the risk and found the cost of contraception-related side effects too high. Further analysis of the WHO studies suggests that a woman's day to day health is a more proximate concern for her than more distal concerns with the health consequences of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Women's negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods--based on either personal experience or rumor--appear to be the most significant determinant of their contraceptive practice. The 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, which provided the first nationally representative evidence on abortion, confirmed these postulates. 47% of reported abortions were preceded by use of withdrawal or periodic abstinence, 34% by no method use, and 17% by failure of a modern method. 26% of one-time pill and IUD users had discontinued method use because of side effects. Persistence of the belief that pill use causes sterility or cancer indicates that women lack access to reliable information, while the high frequency of repeat abortion attests to the need for postabortion family planning counseling. On the other hand, more attention must be given to women's perceptions of the cultural significance of contraceptive side effects, especially those related to disruption of the menstrual cycle. A user perspective to family planning demands that every woman should have access to a method that maximizes her opportunity to avoid unwanted pregnancy while minimizing psychological or physiologic distress.
Geneva, Switzerland, [WHO], Division of Family Health / Unit of Family Planning and Population, 1994. , 35 p. (WHO/FHE/FPP/94.2 Rev.1)Female sterilization represents a viable option for women who are certain they want no more children. It is critical, however, that family planning programs offering female sterilization provide careful counseling that highlights the permanence of the procedure and the availability of safe, effective alternatives for couples who desire long-term reversible protection from pregnancy. This booklet provides health workers with basic information on how female sterilization works, its advantages and disadvantages, its risks and benefits, and how to help women make informed choices. It also provides answers to the most commonly asked questions about the procedure. Ample illustrations and charts are included. Appendices present a sample informed consent form and suggested pre- and postoperative instructions for sterilization acceptors.
First professional meeting for TSS / CST advisors on population IEC and population education. 17-21 October, 1994, UNFPA / UNESCO, Paris. [Proceedings].
[Unpublished] 1994.  p.In October 1994, UNFPA technical support services (TSS) and country support team (CST) advisors attended a meeting on population IEC (information, education, and communication) in Paris, France, to become updated on IEC and population education. The notebook provided to all participants contains the meeting agenda. The agenda had sessions on the latest trends in population IEC, applying research effectively in IEC and population education, the program approach (implications for IEC), implications of UNFPA support to family planning/IEC, counseling skills training and interpersonal communication, application of knowledge and policies in the area of youth, male involvement in reproductive health, reconceptualization of population education, gender issues and girls education, participatory approaches and community involvement, innovative methodologies for school-based population education, and new information technologies. The notebook also has a list of participants categorized by CST team, TSS team, UNFPA headquarters, and consultants/resource persons. The bulk of the notebook is composed of resource papers addressing topics of the various sessions and related IEC/population education issues.
IPPF OPEN FILE. 1993 Feb; 1.In 1984, in Mexico City, the Reagan administration announced its policy prohibiting USAID from supporting any nongovernmental organization which used its own or US funds for any abortion-related activities. Even though this policy was intended to reduce the incidence of abortion, it had the opposite effect because the cut in funding left some areas of the developing world with no family planning services or information at all. Further, this policy resulted in a loss of $17 million (US) or 25% of the budget of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). On January 22, 1993, US President Clinton reversed this policy. IPPF considered President Clinton's action to be a significant event for women's health, human rights, and global development. This reversal will provide family planning services to about 300 million couples who want to practice family planning but could not do so because they did not have access to it. Shortly after President Clinton's announcement, IPPF began writing a proposal to USAID for funds to restore programs that the Mexico City policy eliminated. IPPF hoped the reversal would spark international recognition of the need for safe access to abortion. Other actions President Clinton has taken to promote reproductive health are reversing the Reagan and Bush administrations' rule prohibiting abortion counseling at federally-funded clinics, requesting that the US Food and Drug Administration study the possible marketing of RU-486, removing the ban on abortion in military hospitals, approving regulations allowing fetal tissue research, and appointing an abortion rights advocate as Surgeon General. The Catholic Church opposed all of Clinton's abortion policies. However, many congregations, priests, and Vatican officials are dissatisfied with the Pope's anticontraception position.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.
London, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 26 p.This 3-year plan describes how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) intends to pursue the common goals of its membership: guide and encourage program development at all levels; indicate IPPF international strategies which support the work of Family Planning Associations (FPAs); and provide a statement to the outside world of IPPF's contribution to family planning during the plan period. The Plan has 7 Action Areas which reflect IPPF's overall priorities: the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; coverage and quality of family planning services; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male involvement in family planning; and resource development. Within each Action Area, the discussion suggests national strategies by which FPAs can achieve their objectives, while international strategies identify activities through which volunteers and staff can carry out their roles at the international and regional level. Action Area 1 outlines measures to carry out IPPF's basic commitment to support the efforts of FPAs in their national environments and describes how IPPF intends to play its full part as an international federation of voluntary family planning organizations. Continued efforts are needed thoughout the Federation to increase understanding of the pioneering role of FPAs and IPPF in advancing family planning as part of overall development and social change. The objectives of Action Area 1 -- the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning -- are to improve FPA program effectiveness, to strengthen the contribution of volunteers to planned parenthood; to broaden community participation in family planning; and to intensify understanding of the role of nongovernmental organizations in family planning. The objectives of Action Area II are to increase adherence to family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to the exercise of the human right to family planning, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people and development, resources, and the environment. Objectives of the remaining 5 Action Areas include: ensure greater availability and accessibility of family planning services; raise and maintain standards of family planning services and increase their acceptability; improve and expand the education components of family planning programs; improve and extend family life education and counseling activities for young people; improve and expand efforts at the community level to intergrate family planning with women's development; increase male contraceptive practice; and focus effort on meeting unmet need.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 58 p.This International Planned Parenthood report states the agency's policy position on management of infertility, and then briefly goes on to cover the following topics, in handbook form: 1) epidemiology of infertility; 2) etiology of infertility; 3) proper infertility counseling; 4) prevention (trauma avoidance and early treatment of diseases); 5) diagnostic techniques for the couple, man, and woman; 6) treatment of infertility in women and men; 7) use of artificial insemination, both with donor's semen and partner's semen; and 8) the place of adoption within the community of infertile couples. Prevalence of infertility is placed at an international average of 10%, though places such as Cameroon have rates as high as 40%. The factors influencing infertility are divided into 3 groups: 1) socio-cultural, 2) sexually transmitted diseases, and 3) other diseases and disorders. Causes of female infertility include: ovulation dysfunction; tubal obstruction or dysfunction; uterine actors such as fibroids, polyps, or developmental abnormalities; cervical abnormalities; vaginal factors, such as severe vaginitis or imperforate hymen; endocrine and metabolic factors, particularly thyroid disturbances, diabetes, adrenal disorder, severe nutritional disorders (anemia), or other systemic conditions; and repeated pregnancy wastage. Male causes include poor semen quality; ductal obstruction; ejaculatory disturbances (i.e., failure to deliver sperm to vagina); emotional stress (may lead to hypogonadism); and genetic factors (Klinefelter syndrome). Causes specific to the couple include lack of understanding of reproductive physiology, immunoloigcal incompatibility, nutritional deficiencies, and psychogenic factors.