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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.Contraceptives, drugs, and medical supplies required for reproductive health services in developing regions cost US$1.84 billion in 2000, will cost $2.34 billion in 2005, and will rise in cost to $3.43 billion by 2015. Annual costs will be 86 per cent higher, in constant dollars, in 2015 than in 2000 (Figure 1). These estimates cover contraceptives for family planning, condoms for protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and drugs and medical supplies for safe deliveries and other reproductive health services. Drugs and medical supplies make up over half the total cost, contraceptives around one-third, and condoms for protection the remaining one-eighth or so. The estimates are detailed in this report, which attempts to assess the overall costs of reproductive health commodities, which UNFPA has traditionally had a major role in helping provide for developing regions. These commodities are essential to achieve the goal of providing universal access to reproductive health care, as mandated in 1994 by the International Conference on Population and Development. The report is not intended to specify the quantities and cost of commodities needed in particular countries but rather tries to arrive at estimates of global requirements. Nevertheless, the calculations are based on detailed consideration of regional and even country data where they are available. The report assesses the number of cases in developing regions of each relevant reproductive health condition, projects these numbers over 15 years, determines the commodities required as part of appropriate treatment, estimates the proportion of cases that do receive such treatment, specifies how coverage should rise in the future, and calculates the commodity costs for all the cases to be covered. (excerpt)
New York, New York, IWHC, . 10 p.The United States Congress is pursuing a number of misguided domestic and international policies that have profound—and profoundly counterproductive–impacts on women in the United States and around the world. Each individual action deserves attention; taken together they paint a chilling picture of Congress' willingness to sacrifice women and girls to gain political favor with those on the far right. In tandem with the Bush administration, the Republican-dominated 108th Congress is chipping away at women’s rights and health both at home and abroad. The International Women’s Health Coalition has compiled some of its most egregious actions, as a complement to our ongoing monitoring of the Bush administration (see the Bush’s Other War factsheet at http://www.bushsotherwar.com). (excerpt)
London, England, OneWorld International Foundation, 2003 Aug 4. 3 p.In a recent report on the State of Children's Rights, 2003, by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN), 9.9 percent of the HIV infected population consists of children below 19. "HIV has already infected 41 children below 13 years of age," says CWIN president Gauri Pradhan. Although HIV cases are rising, the government is yet to provide sufficient funds to combat the syndrome. It sanctioned US $5 million for an AIDS prevention and control program in 2002. Donors contributed more than that. Another major hitch is a shortage of test centers. There are only a dozen HIV test facilities in Nepal's major hospitals. (excerpt)
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
Arlington, Virginia, Center for International Health Information, 1997 Dec. 16 p.This booklet presents highlights of 1995-97 activities of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID's) HIV/AIDS program. After a brief description of the current status of the pandemic, USAID's response, and its new strategy, the booklet provides a more in-depth examination of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the highlights of USAID HIV/AIDS prevention activities during the past decade, and USAID's focus on prevention, which focuses on promoting safer sex behavior, increasing condom availability and use, and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The next section of the booklet reviews USAID's proven interventions, such as behavior change communication and research, condom social marketing, and the development of services to prevent and treat STDs. An example is then given of how the three interventions were used successfully to stem transmission in Thailand. The booklet continues by explaining how USAID has targeted its response to developing countries (where it can have a significant impact on slowing the pandemic), youth, and women, and how peer educators and community outreach activities have been used to spread the prevention message. Next, the booklet discusses how USAID has expanded its partnerships with the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, with UNAIDS, and with Japan. The final section details the new USAID strategy for the future that will continue to focus on the three aspects of prevention and will also seek to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals and communities. The booklet also contains case studies of various USAID-funded projects.
FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 28-9.As the AIDS epidemic and HIV transmission in India increasingly resembles that observed in sub-Saharan Africa, Indian society's arrogant perception of invulnerability to the pandemic is proving to be considerably ill-conceived. The dimensions of the epidemic have multiplied greatly since AIDS was 1st identified among prostitutes in Madras, with the trends observed in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu being especially ominous. AIDS has forced Indian society and research professionals to acknowledge the existence of domestic prostitution, homosexuals, and drug users. While only 103 AIDS cases and 6,400 HIV infections have been officially identified, it is clear that these cases represent only a tiny fraction of the true extent of the epidemic in India. The government will therefore spend up to US$7.75 million on an anti-AIDS program aimed at ensuring secure blood supplies, and checking heterosexual transmission through education and the promotion of condoms. The program also targets IV-drug users and truck drivers for education and behavioral change. India is the 2nd country after Zaire to accept foreign loans for such a purpose. It will receive US$85 million over 5 years from the World Bank in addition to supplemental funds from the WHO and the U.S. Weak attempts, however, have been made to test blood supplies, with only 15% being tested in Tamil Nadu. A large gap also remains between health educators and needy target groups. Finally, while some top officials realize the need for immediate action against AIDS, broad public awareness and coping will come only after AIDS mortality begins to mount in the population.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Seoul, South Korea, PPFK, 1979 Jan. 26 p.The Korean government and the family planning organizations coordinate the distribution of contraceptives under the PPFK, funded by the IPPF. Import of oral pills must legally be permitted by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; distribution/sales is restricted to licensed pharmacists, unless a nonpharmacist is in the government family planning program. The Korean CBD project was launched as a 3-year program with $620,000 funding. The goal was to increase family planning practice from 45% in 1975 to 60% of all eligible couples by 1981. The approaches utilized were community-based, voluntary participation; full availability of contraceptives; convenience in obtaining contraceptives; unsophisticated procedure of delivery; personalization of distribution; and, self-help practice in family planning practice. Evaluations of the project conducted in November 1976 and December 1977 found that the majority of community leaders, 84.5% in 1976, recommended that the CBD program be expanded at the national level. 86.6% of the consumers in 1977 found the contraceptives conveniently obtained and inexpensive. Younger consumers preferred drug stores; older consumers preferred CBD distributors. Housewives were the primary purchasers. They bought oral pills in 99% of the cases.