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Advocacy, communication, and partnerships: Mobilizing for effective, widespread cervical cancer prevention.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:57-62.Both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening/treatment are relatively simple and inexpensive to implement at all resource levels, and cervical cancer screening has been acknowledged as a "best buy" by the WHO. However, coverage with these interventions is low where they are needed most. Failure to launch or expand cervical cancer prevention programs is by and large due to the absence of dedicated funding, along with a lack of recognition of the urgent need to update policies that can hinder access to services. Clear and sustained communication, robust advocacy, and strategic partnerships are needed to inspire national governments and international bodies to action, including identifying and allocating sustainable program resources. There is significant momentum for expanding coverage of HPV vaccination and screening/preventive treatment in low-resource settings as evidenced by new global partnerships espousing this goal, and the participation of groups that previously had not focused on this critical health issue. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
New York, New York, UNDP, . 4 p.There is also a need for greater insight into why and how men and women enter into sexually-defined spaces and relations. For women, this may have to do with cultural imperatives which place high value on mother-hood and on the continuation of the lineage. Or the reason may have to do with economic imperatives, an inability to survive economically without the support of a man or except by commercial sex work. Or with a desire for the intimacy or companionship which a sexual relationship may give them or with a need for protection, a critical social role that men play. A women-centered analysis of desire and sexuality, of power and its impact, of relations of production and reproduction, of the social construction of kinship and gender, of the value of compassion and solidarity, that is, of the experience of being a woman, all contribute to a better understanding of why, for an individual woman, it may be so very difficult to remain uninfected. (excerpt)
Media Development. 2002; 49(4):27.There is growing recognition that those who most need the boost that information communication technologies (ICTs) can provide are least able to take advantage of it. The bridging of this 'digital divide', is, therefore, now high on the global development agenda with multi-lateral and bi-lateral agencies channelling millions of dollars into projects which aim to support the ability of the marginalised to harness the power of ICTs. (excerpt)
Mid-term review report: 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation, Government of the Sultanate of Oman-UNICEF.
Muscat, Oman, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training, 1999. 65 p.The Mid-Term Review of the 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Oman and UNICEF was held - after a long and productive process of consultation - in May 1999, in Muscat, under the coordination of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training. A total of 55 participants from Government ministries and national bodies attended, along with representatives from UNICEF Muscat, Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa, and New York headquarters. Discussions were wide-ranging and productive, with frank appraisals of programme processes and achievements and useful intersectoral perspectives on programme cooperation. (excerpt)
Report of the Global Action against Female Genital Mutilation Project Second Annual Inter-Agency Working Group Meeting. Held at: AVSC International, New York, November 6 and 7, 1995.
[Unpublished] 1995. , 19,  p.In November 1995, the Inter-Agency Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Meeting provided a forum for international agencies to share information on relevant policies and programs and technical knowledge in research, intervention, and evaluation and to develop ethical approaches and strategies for FGM activities. Following a summary of the welcoming remarks, the report of the meeting reviews global FGM activities in 1994. For example, Ghana outlawed FGM. Meeting participants heard an update on FGM-related presentations and/or discussions at the Beijing Conference. Next on the agenda was an overview of the current and future programs of the meeting's host, the Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBO). It revolved around grants and technical capacity building, communications and information dissemination, and the immigrant outreach project. In-country FGM-related activities in Egypt and Ethiopia were discussed next. International activities' updates were provided by UN and bilateral organizations (UNICEF, WHO, USAID, UNFPA, Overseas Development Agency, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) as well as technical agencies, private foundations, research institutions (Japan's Network for Women and Health, the Wallace Global Fund, Harvard University, Family Health International), Program for Appropriate Technologies in Health, and the Ford Foundation. A presentation by the president of the National Committee Against the Practice of Excision in Burkina Faso focused on FGM activities in Burkina Faso and addressed the plans for a West African operational research network to coordinate research activities and help integrate programs of intervention. The West Africa focus continued with a presentation on proposed projects in Mali and Ghana. New and innovative projects highlighted next included a video project in Burkina Faso and Human Rights Community Training Projects in Kenya. The meeting concluded with a discussion of strategies for the future.
MEDIA DEVELOPMENT. 1995; 42(2):38-9.In preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women, women of the Latin American Information Agency prepared a statement for the UN about the importance of communications and information in the contemporary world and the role of women in the media. The statement includes the following specific suggestions: 1) that the UN promote the democratization of communications with a gender focus, 2) that women be assured access to new communications technologies that empower their communicational capacity, 3) that steps be taken to ensure that media content projects a positive and nondiscriminatory image of women, and 4) that guidelines be drawn up to promote labor equality between the genders and a greater presence of women in decision-making positions in the media.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
Arlington, Virginia, Center for International Health Information, 1997 Dec. 16 p.This booklet presents highlights of 1995-97 activities of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID's) HIV/AIDS program. After a brief description of the current status of the pandemic, USAID's response, and its new strategy, the booklet provides a more in-depth examination of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the highlights of USAID HIV/AIDS prevention activities during the past decade, and USAID's focus on prevention, which focuses on promoting safer sex behavior, increasing condom availability and use, and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The next section of the booklet reviews USAID's proven interventions, such as behavior change communication and research, condom social marketing, and the development of services to prevent and treat STDs. An example is then given of how the three interventions were used successfully to stem transmission in Thailand. The booklet continues by explaining how USAID has targeted its response to developing countries (where it can have a significant impact on slowing the pandemic), youth, and women, and how peer educators and community outreach activities have been used to spread the prevention message. Next, the booklet discusses how USAID has expanded its partnerships with the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, with UNAIDS, and with Japan. The final section details the new USAID strategy for the future that will continue to focus on the three aspects of prevention and will also seek to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals and communities. The booklet also contains case studies of various USAID-funded projects.
JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1992 Sep; 38(3):74-7.The impact of family planning (FP) on the health and lives of women and children is being increasingly recognized in developing countries including India. The acceptance of FP grows when child survival rates improve, and the practice of FP can help avoid deaths of infants and mothers which occur when mothers are too young or too old or when births are spaced too closely. FP could reduce about 25% of the 125,000 maternal deaths which occur each year in India and could help women avoid dangerous illegal abortions. FP used for birth spacing improves infant survival as well as the quality of the mothers' lives. Education is one of the most crucial determinants of a woman's socioeconomic status and, therefore, of their children's health and survival. It is, thus, important for girls to have access to universal primary education. UNICEF supports FP within the context of child survival and development activities such as the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programs which include promotion of accessible contraception. UNICEF also promotes increasing the marriage age to 18 years, a two-child family norm, and communication activities to create a demand for FP. UNICEF is working with the Indian government to provide uneducated adolescent girls with nonformal education and vocational training so they can seek employment rather than early marriage. Through such activities, UNICEF is demonstrating its belief in the far-reaching benefits of FP.
Washington, D.C., Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1990 Mar.  p. (Current Policy No. 1262)At the meeting of the 34th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), US representative Juliette C. McLennan discussed 8 areas of concern which touch on issues of equality, development, and peace. The issues raised by McLennan include: 1) Women's leadership roles must be increased at both national and international levels. Addressing these areas of concern is a significant step in implementing the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, which call on governments and political parties to increase participation of women in all areas of the government, including executive, legislative, and judicial branches. 2) Economic reform measures are necessary to ensure full participation of women in the development process. Lack of access to resources, credit, information, constrains women's productivity -- a problem oftentimes compounded by legislation that restricts property ownership by women. Measures to alleviate these situations will not only ensure greater equality, it will also increase productivity, having tapped the potential of women's labor. 3) Literacy is necessary to bring about women's economic development. 4) Efforts to protect the environment must include women as participants. 5) The safety of refugee women must be ensured. Women in refugee camps are subject to physical violence and sexual abuse. In order to remedy this situation, not only must they be protected from physical dangers, women must be given education and training necessary to return them to the productive sector. 6) The spread of AIDS among women must be addressed. 6) The prevalence of violence against women -- assault, rape, abduction -- must be stopped. Providing support centers and ensuring the prosecution of the perpetrators can make a contribution. 7) Considering the lack of attention paid to CSW's authority to handle confidential and nonconfidential communications concerning violations of women's rights, this aspect of the commission's mandate must be further defined in order to strengthen its ability.
Populi. 1985; 12(2):57-66.The UN Statistical Office is endeavoring to improve the collection and analysis of statistical information on women. Accurate statistical information is a prerequisite for assessing the current status of sexual inequality in the world and for monitoring responses to policies aimed at removing sexual inequalities. The Statistical Office in conjunction with several other UN agencies is 1) seeking to improve methods of collecting and analyzing information on women, 2) developing a computerized data base for statistical information on women at the international level, 3) conducting workshops for researchers and users of statistical in formation on women, and 4) helping countries develop systems for collecting relevant information. The Office publishes 3 documents on methodological problems. The 1st document, "Sex-based Stereotypes, Sex Biases and National Data System," identifies cultural factors which impede information gathering on women and suggests strategies for overcoming these obstacles. The 2nd publication, "Compiling Social Indicators on the Situation of Women," describes available data on women, discusses how this data can be most effectively used, and identifies indicators which can be developed from the available data. The 3rd document, "Methods for Statistics and Indicators on the Situation of Women," describes and evaluates the concepts and methods currently used in collecting and a analyzing information on women and makes a series of recommendations for improving the collection of data on women. In 1984, the Office began developing a data base for statistical information on women. At the present time, the data is available in a form which can be appropriately utilized only by individuals with sophisticated statistical skills. The information will eventually be available on diskettes. The Office is helping to develop workshops for the dual purpose of informing researchers about the information needs of planners and of teaching potential users, unfamiliar with statistical techniques, how to interpret and effectively use statistical information on women. The 1st workshop was held in early 1985 for participants from 11 English-speaking countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. A 2nd conference of Portuguese-speaking Africa countries is currently being organized, and workshops in other developing regions are anticipated. The UN helps countries develop census and registration systems and expand their survey capabilities. Although the original goal of these activities was not to collect data on women, efforts are now being made to ensure that data collecting instruments include a component for eliciting information on women. The Statistical Office's activities are guided by recommendations made by experts at a UN-sponsored meeting held in New York in 1983. These recommendations called for 1) methodological improvements, 2) the use of available data to develop indicators women's situation at the national and international level, 3) increased interaction between data collectors and data users, and 4) improved data collection of information on women at the national level. The Office has made considerable progress in pursuing these goals, but much remains to be done.
The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
Family Coordinator. 1973 Jul; 22(3):331-8.Data collected on behalf of the Planned Parenthood/World Population (PPWP) affiliate to be used in planning a vasectomy education program came from a survey of 387 men and women in Hayward, California, to ascertain the levels of knowledge and prevalence of vasectomy and attitudes toward the operation. The sample was comprised of men and women in 3 income categories, and households were not preselected on a random basis. The survey instrument was a 1-page set of questions, primarily of the closed-ended type which the respondent completed in the presence of the interviewer. The major findings were: 1) PPWP was not identified as a source of aid; 2) most men and women have discussed vasectomy with their spouses; 3) men and women are influenced by attitudes and practices of others with regard to vasectomy; 4) physicians are seen as the main source of information about vasectomy; 5) irreversibility is the major concern of the men and women; and 6) eligible couples can be reached only by a community-side education program. Implications of the survey for a community education program are put into concrete, programmatic terms, indicating lines of direction, points of departure, and crucial ideas sometimes overlooked in service programs. It is concluded that in all areas of a community education program vasectomy should be presented as 1 or a range of alternatives, thus assuring the couple that does elect vasectomy that they really did make a free choice.
World Health. 1979 Jan; 16-9.In 1968 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea in conjunction with the Monistry of Health and Social Affairs began to organize mothers' clubs at the village level for the purpose of distributing oral contraceptives. The effect of these clubs on the life of Korean village women has been revolutionary. Prior to the establishment of the clubs village women spent most of their time confined to their homes, were accorded little status, and had little influence in village affairs. The clubs provided women with an opportunity to visit together and to talk about their common problems. As a result, they were inspired to develop a variety of self-help cooperative activities. For example the women of Chultongwon initiated a savings union and a cooperative store. The money they earned from these activities was used to bring electricity to their village. Some clubs have also developed their own health insurance plans. These activities have not only enhanced the status of women in the villages but have improved the quality of life for all villagers. These changes in turn have had a positive effect on family planning endeavors. By 1977 almost 70,000 local clubs had been established with a membership of approximately 2 1/2 million women.
Presented at the National Conference on Population Management as a Factor in Development including Family Planning, Maseru, Lesotho, April 26-29, 1979. 7 pWomen in many parts of Africa have low status, low literacy levels, feel isolated, and are not recognized for their contributions to national development. If programs can be designed to offer women in developing countries an alternative to motherhood, their status can be raised and the birth rate dropped at the same time. Women should be included in all development planning. Family planning programs should be integrated into other, broader programs. Women should be provided with family planning education, allowed to discuss with and motivate each other, and taught the skills and knowledge to communicate family planning to young people. Family planning programs could be integrated with maternal and child health, nutrition, and literacy programs. The work of women's organizations in these areas is cited. Examples of programs which have successfully integrated family planning into other development areas are cited. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has long been involved in promoting the role of women in family planning development.
Operational responses to the World Population Plan of Action in programmes of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in the areas of fertility, family and family planning.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 15 p. (IESA/P/ICP. 1984/EG.I/30)The experience of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported programs related to family, fertility and family planning in developing countries are reviewed on the basis of an analysis of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) recommendations and corresponding UNFPA programs. Among the many recommendations and guidelines of the WPPA, those dealing with protection of the family, with the improvement of the status of women, with modernization and fertility, and with the right of individuals and couples to plan their families are of particular importance to family and fertility. The WPPA recognizes the family as the basic unit of society and recommends that governments enact legislation and policy to protect the family and conduct periodic reviews of national legislation with direct bearing on the family and its members. The Plan urges governments to ensure the full participation of women in the educational, social, economic and political life of their countries on an equal basis with men. The role of family planning in realizing desired fertility goals is clearly noted in the WPPA, which recommends that countries encourage appropriate education concerning responsible parenthood and make available advice and the means of family planning. The Plan also calls for a broad approach to family planning, including the elimination of involuntary sterility, and invites governments which have family planning programs to consider integrating and coordinating those services with health and other services. During the 1969-81 period, the Fund has supported a total of 1240 projects on family, fertility and family planning in 92 countries, of which 31 are in sub-Saharan Africa, 24 in Asia and the Pacific, 25 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12 in the Middle East and Mediterranean. This totals about $394 million, 50.2% of total program resources, or 64% of total assistance to country activities. UNFPA has supported both research and action programs related to the family, several activities designed to improve women's position in the family and to bring about a better understanding of fertility. Many UNFPA activities touch on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality and the improvement of role and status of women. Recognizing the different needs of countries for the provision of family planning services, the Fund supports all effective means of delivery of family planning services and the provision of all ethods of fertility regulation technically approved by the World Health Organization. Changes in ways of thinking about population and experiences that have implications for the future are reviewed and areas in need of further action are identified.
Regional Course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population Programmes, Shanghai, China, 23 August to 3 September 1982, course report.
[Bangkok], Unesco, 1983. 34 p.This pamphlet summarizes the proceedings of the regional course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population/Development Programs held in Shanghai, China, in 1982. The gathering, attended by 12 participants from 10 countries, was organized by the United Nations Educational, Scienticfic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in cooperation with all All-China Women's Federation and the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development. The objectives of the course were: to study communication techniques ans strategies in support of national development with special reference to population programs; to study the role of women in the national development process, especially in terms of information, education, and communication activities; to delineate specific aspects of population and development programs in which women can play significant roles; and to exchange experiences. It was suggested that women's organizations can provide governments with an accurate picture of women's participation in national development. However, this requires adoption of health, education, legal, and labor force indicators to measure the degree of female participation. There is also a need to involve educated professional women in the effort to raise the status of the masses of women. Each country needs to take an inventory of all groups and organizations interested in women's developemnt and seek to involve them in mass publicity campaigns to explain the importance of mobilizing women in the developing effort. Women's groups can act as liaisons between the government and local women. The development of national communication strategies should involve identification of prevalent social issues, establishment of linkages between these issues and development, and identification of the role that the mass media can play to project women in a nonsexist fashion. Finally, it was recommended that governments of the Asian-Pacific Region should aim to improve coordination between government and nongovernmental organizations.