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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Ensuring the complementarity of country ownership and accountability for results in relation to donor aid: a response.

    Germain A

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):141-5.

    This paper focuses on the topic of improving the impact of sexual and reproductive health development assistance from European donors. It touches on country ownership and accountability and uses International Health Partnership+ (IHP+) as an example. In addition, it discusses the need for better funding data and more activity around sexual and reproductive health and rights. It concludes with recommendations for improving aid impact and effectiveness and improving outcome measures.
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  2. 2

    From silent spring to vocal vanguard - women's role in the global environmental movement - includes related articles.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3):[9] p..

    Since 1962, when American author Rachel Carson alerted the world to the dangers of pesticide poisoning in her ground-breaking book "Silent Spring", women have played a vital role in the global environmental movement. In 1988, the World Commission on Environment and Development, headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, published its report, "Our Common Future", linking the environmental crisis to unsustainable development and financial practices that were worsening the North-South gap, with women making up a majority of the world's poor and illiterate. The United Nations Development Programme has defined sustainable development as development that not only generates economic growth, but distributes its benefits equitably, that regenerates the environment rather than destroying it, and that empowers people rather than marginalizing them. It is development that gives priority to the poor, enlarging their choices and opportunities and providing for their participation in decisions that affect their lives. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The World Bank atlas. 25th anniversary edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 36 p.

    This atlas presents social, economic, and environmental statistics for 200 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. The following social/demographic indices are presented: population growth rate, 1980-1991; under-5 mortality rate, 1991; daily calorie supply/capita, 1989; illiteracy rate, 1990; and female labor force, 1991. GNP/capita, 1991; GNP/capita growth rate, 1980-91; and shares of agriculture, exports, and investment in GDP in 1991 comprise the economic data. Finally, GDP output/kilogram energy used, 1990; annual water use and annual water use/capita, 1970-87; forest coverage, 1989; and change in forest coverage, 1980-89, are presented as economic indicators. All figures are reported in color graphic format. Technical notes and World Bank structure and functions are discussed in closing sections. The text also cautions that the differing statistical systems and data collection methods and capabilities employed internationally demand that caution be taken against directly comparing statistical coverages and definitions.
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  4. 4

    The disappearing forests.

    Clarke R

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], [1988]. [8] p. (UNEP Environment Brief No. 3)

    2,970 million hectares of tropical forests comprise 20% of the land surface, almost all of which lie in developing countries. 11.3 million hectares of tropical forest vanish each year, however. 26.5% of the world's tropical forests are in Brazil. Other countries with many tropical forests are Zaire (9.2%); and Peru, Angola, Bolivia, and India; each with 3%. Expansion of agricultural land is the leading cause of deforestation. More specifically it is shortened fallow periods which cause deforestation. In developing countries, forests are especially valuable because they fulfill many subsistence needs of rural dwellers (e.g., fuelwood, nuts, fruit, medicines, and ropes), conserve water and soil, provide people with industrial products and thus foreign exchange, and hold genetic resources. The world needs to work together to wisely manage tropical forests on a sustainable basis. Governments must reassess existing policies that favor agricultural development and rapid forest exploitation. Small-scale projects in which local people especially women plan the work with qualified foresters and execute it tend to be successful. 3 UN agencies prepared a global plan of action for the wise management of tropical forests, but they could not persuade 21 nations with tropical forests such as Brazil, Burma, Colombia, and Zaire to adopt it. A new global plan developed by 2 of those agencies, UN Development Programme and the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute appears to have more potential for success. Development agencies, international lending organizations, governments, and the private sector will invest US$8,000 million in topical forests over 5 years. Most of the 21 nations have agreed to take part in the plan. The areas of investment include fuelwood and agroforestry, land use on upland watersheds, management for industrial uses, and conservation.
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  5. 5

    Interview: Ms. Mary Chinery-Hesse on: women in development.

    Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):13-6.

    In the context of an interview, the role of women in development is discussed. Despite the fact that women in Africa have the primary responsiblity of carrying out the daily agricultural tasks involved in planting, tending, harvesting, and marketing, men are the target of most development programs. This inconsistency is attributable to a variety of cultural and social factors. For example, the fruits of agriculture are culturally defined as belonging to the men, and men, therefore, make the decisions about how the proceeds from farming are to be spent. Factors such as this reduce the visibility of women's major contribution to agricultural production. Recent socioeconomic and demographic changes have altered the role of women in African societies in a number of ways. Tribal structures have broken down and traditional sex rules have been disrupted. Subsistence patterns have also been disrupted, and parents now realize that they must limit family size in order to provide adequately for their children. Increased access to family planning is helping these parents reduce family size. The high proportion of young people in the population strains many support facilities and increases hardships for women. The greatest achievement for women in the past decade is the increased recognition given to their contribution in development. Many African governments have created commissions and committees charged with the task of formulating policies and programs to integrate women in development activities. The UN Development Program (UNDP) has helped upgrade the status of women by funding many projects aimed at improving conditions for women. The UNDP provides funds for maternal and child health programs, projects aimed at improving water supplies, and projects aimed at generating income for women. In addition, UNDP is helping to develop effective strategies for integrating women in development planning. Communication plays an important role in enhancing the position of women in Africa. Public knowledge of women's problems and needs has increased, and many misconceptions about the role of women have been corrected.
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  6. 6

    The Hosken Report: genital and sexual mutilation of females. 3rd rev. ed.

    Hosken FP

    Lexington, Massachusetts, Women's International Network News, 1982 Nov. 338 p.

    This report documents the existence and prevalence in Africa and in other regions of the world of the cultural practice of female circumcision and genital mutilation (FC/GM). This serious problem is examined so that it can be abolished. Until recently the problem was hidden from the public, and most health, government and international agency officials denied that the practices were widespread. In 1979 at a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on traditional health practices, the problem received international attention. Recommendations made by the seminar participants urged nations to adopt policies to abolish FC/GM, to establish commissions to coordinate activities aimed at abolishing the practices, and to intensify efforts to educate the public and health professionals about the problem. In 1984 it was estimated that 79.97 million women in Africa had FC/GM operations performed at some time during their life. The proportion of women who have had FC/GM operations was almost 100% in Somalia, 90% in Ethiopia, 80% in Sudan, Mali, and Sierra Leone, and 60% in Kenya, Ivory Coast, and Gambia. Information is provided on 1) the extent of the practices, 2) the health problems associated with FC/GM, 3) the 1979 WHO seminar, 4) the history of FC/GM, and 5) the cultural beliefs supporting the practices. Case histories provide detailed information on the practices in 11 African countries, 4 countries on the Arab Pennisula, and 2 Asian countries, including Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The existence of FC/GM practices in many other countries, including Western nations, is also documented. These practices are also discussed in reference to the depressed status of women in many African countries, and the role of women in these countries is examined in regard to legal matters, education, employment, agriculture, family planning, development, and urbanization. Political factors hindering the abolition of the practices and the hesitancy of international agencies such as WHO, US Agency for International Development, and the UN Children's Fund, to deal with the problem are discussed. There is some evidence that FC/GM operations are being conducted in hospitals in a number of African countries, and efforts must be made to prohibit the introduction of these practices into the modern health care system. Suggestions are provided for action and education programs aimed at abolishing FC/GM practices. An annotated bibliograpy, containing 78 references, is also provided.
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  7. 7

    PEAS evaluation research. Population Education in the Agricultural Sector.


    Bangkok, Thailand, DEEMAR, 1983 Nov. [8], 27, [27] p. (UNFPA/FAO Project THA/83/PO4; J.9616)

    This evaluation research reports on the effectiveness of the Thai learning program for 500 civil servants who then incorporate the population education into their jobs as trainers. A sample of 100 trainers representing 6 provinces and regions were evaluated for content and process of integration information, for innovative approaches, for identifying systems which facilitate integration, and for identifying bottlenecks. Informal contact and monthly meetings or already formal groups have been the vehicles for transmission of information. Horizontal integration among staff and co-workers is high as well as among villagers in vertical integration. No follow-up is made after contact and little active participation occurs after POPED. In order to expand contact with the rural population, more training among middle management position needs to be addressed within the organization. Interorganization is overall 86%. The most talked about topics among villagers were population growth and natural resources (86%), age at marriage (81%), population density and land distribution (79%), and nutrition (70%). The most difficult topics were migration (21%), planning for a family (13%), economic and social consideration in marriage (14%), and sex of children (14%). Trainers perceived family planning in general as the most important topic and key to the success of the effort.
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