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New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC], . 2 p.Today, about 1 billion people are between 10 and 19 years of age, 85% of them in developing countries. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development recognized that adolescents have a special need for sexual and reproductive health information, education and services, and that these services must respect the right of adolescents to privacy. Many women around the world marry as adolescents. Across Sub-Saharan Africa, at least half of young women enter their first marriage or union by age 18 (e.g. Mali, Niger - more than 75% of young women; Cameroon, Malawi, Uganda, Nigeria - more than 50%). In Egypt and the Sudan, the proportion is 27%, but in Yemen, it is 49%. In Latin America and the Caribbean, between 20 and 40% of adolescent women in countries such as Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Trinidad and Tobago are married before age 18. Across Asia, the likelihood of early marriage is quite variable: 73% of women in Bangladesh enter a union by age 18, compared with 14% in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, and 5% in China. (excerpt)
Fuera del Closet. 1996 Sep; (10):4-5.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (a human being under the age of 18) declared the right of children to health and protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. This was reiterated by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights. The Declaration of the Conference on Human Rights urged the governments to step up their efforts to protect and promote the human rights of women and children. It called for the elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation. (excerpt)
In: Global appeal, 2003. Strategies and programmes, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003. 36-51.Ensuring equal rights and access by refugee women to all aspects of protection and assistance provided by UNHCR, is central to the Office’s refugee protection mandate. This policy commitment is grounded in international agreements and standards, such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UNHCR employs various strategies to make good this commitment, including: elaborating policy guidelines and training materials; providing technical advice and support to operational units; pursuing consultations and partnerships with refugees, particularly women; piloting innovative approaches to empower refugee women; and monitoring and evaluating field-related activities. During the global consultations with refugee women in 2001, the High Commissioner made five commitments: the promotion of women’s equal participation in leadership and decision-making; equal participation in the distribution of food and non-food items; individual registration and documentation of refugee women; support for integrated sexual and gender-based violence programmes at national levels; and the inclusion of sanitary materials within standard assistance packages provided to refugees. These commitments continue to be implemented in practical and measurable ways. (excerpt)
New York, New York, IWHC, 2003. 11 p.Internationally and domestically, in our courts and in our schools, at the UN and on Capitol Hill, it is no exaggeration to say that the White House is conducting a stealth war against women. This war has devastating consequences for social and economic development, democracy, and human rights—and its effects will be felt by women and girls worldwide. (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
Future generations ready for the world. UNFPA's contribution to the goals of the World Summit for Children.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2001. 27 p.This paper summarizes UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) contribution to the goals of the 1990 World Summit for Children. It notes that UNFPA has focused on four major areas of work addressing young people: promoting girls' education, the promotion of adolescent reproductive and sexual health, HIV/AIDS prevention, and the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity.
Stockholm, Sweden, Kvinnoforum, 2002 Feb. 87 p.This third edition of the Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Baltic Sea Region serves as a useful tool for different actors working against trafficking in and around the area. It presents a global overview on what trafficking is about, introduces the networking projects conducted by Kvinnoforum and its partner organizations in six countries in the Baltic Sea Region, and provides contacting details and work of organizations, governmental institutions and others in the six countries.
A charade of concern: the abandonment of Colombia's forcibly displaced. [Falsa inquietud: el abandono de los colombianos desplazados por la fuerza]
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 1999 May. 24 p.The armed conflict in Colombia has forced more than 1.5 million Colombian citizens to flee their homes and communities. Caught in a nightmare of violent conflict with no prospects for reconstructing their former lives, hundreds of thousands of mostly rural peasants have found no option but to join the ranks of the internally displaced. It is noted that despite the extraordinary dimensions of the displacement phenomenon, the issue has remained a silent crisis. During November 29-December 10, 1998, the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children sent a delegation to Colombia to assess the conditions of women, children and adolescents uprooted by war and violence. The objectives of the delegation were to: 1) report on the scale of the displacement crisis; 2) determine to what extent the specific needs of women and children were being addressed by the government and international humanitarian relief; and 3) raise awareness among policymakers and among donor agencies of the status, rights and needs of women and children. Overall, the delegation found evidence of a seriously deprived displaced population which receives alarmingly low levels of humanitarian support and only minimal recognition of their plight from national and international agencies and governments. Thus, this paper also provides recommendations for ameliorating this crisis.
[AIDS: the second decade. Centering efforts on women and children] SIDA: la deuxieme decennie. Centrer les efforts sur les femmes et les enfants.
[New York, New York], UNICEF, . 30 p.Each day, 5000 people worldwide are newly infected with HIV, mostly children and young people. The HIV infection rate is 2-3 times higher among female adolescents than among male adolescents. Regarding AIDS, more attention is given to attitudes and individual sexual behaviors than to social attitudes and behaviors affecting women, youths, and the poor. However, social behaviors influence sexuality and often lead to engagement in risky sex practices which facilitate HIV transmission. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among poor and disenfranchised populations. This brochure describes UNICEF policy on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and which social conditions facilitate its global spread. It also describes the coordinated measures needed to slow and possibly stop the spread of the AIDS pandemic. Those measures need to combat both risky sexual behavior and harmful social attitudes. Drawing from principles and accords established in the Child Rights Convention and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, UNICEF is working in a number of ways to effect positive social change, while according priority attention to population groups at particular risk in developing countries, such as women and young people.
JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Feb; (296):1.An induction workshop for LAO/97/P01, a UNFPA project, was held in Vientiane during December 7-8, 1998. The project is part of the Reproductive Health (RH) Sub-Program in the Lao P.D.R. supported by UNFPA. The sub-program includes 3 other projects related to women's rights and gender equality, adolescent health needs, and sexuality education in schools. National directors of the 4 implemented projects participated in the workshop. Areas in which to develop information, education, and communication materials in RH were noted in the opening ceremony, followed by presentations of the directors of each project on the current status and activities of their respective projects. Each presentation was followed by a question and answer session, including questions from the floor.
Tunis, Tunisia, IPPF, Arab World Region, 1996. , 16,  p.This annual report of the Arab Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) opens with a message from the Chair of the Regional Council, who notes that the IPPF is adopting new strategies to meet the challenges in its "Vision 2000" plan. The Arab Region has aided this effort by engaging in strategic planning, amending its constitution to empower women, and boosting youth participation. Next the regional director summarizes the following areas of interest in this report: 1) training family planning associations to engage in strategic planning and project development; 2) strengthening the Euro-Arab partnership; 3) generating interest in youth-related concerns; 4) empowering women; 5) evaluating progress in implementing the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development; and 6) establishing firm links with other organizations. The report also deals with efforts to incorporate the concept of male responsibility, collaboration, and understanding as the notion of responsible parenthood is promoted. Specific programs described include a ground-breaking youth peer-group program in Algeria; a method of information diffusion that incorporates the oral poetic tradition; and use of operations research to upgrade service provision in Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt. Efforts to insure that the development of evaluation indicators occurs during project planning and implementation are also discussed. The report closes by presenting the financial report for 1995.
First professional meeting for TSS / CST advisors on population IEC and population education. 17-21 October, 1994, UNFPA / UNESCO, Paris. [Proceedings].
[Unpublished] 1994.  p.In October 1994, UNFPA technical support services (TSS) and country support team (CST) advisors attended a meeting on population IEC (information, education, and communication) in Paris, France, to become updated on IEC and population education. The notebook provided to all participants contains the meeting agenda. The agenda had sessions on the latest trends in population IEC, applying research effectively in IEC and population education, the program approach (implications for IEC), implications of UNFPA support to family planning/IEC, counseling skills training and interpersonal communication, application of knowledge and policies in the area of youth, male involvement in reproductive health, reconceptualization of population education, gender issues and girls education, participatory approaches and community involvement, innovative methodologies for school-based population education, and new information technologies. The notebook also has a list of participants categorized by CST team, TSS team, UNFPA headquarters, and consultants/resource persons. The bulk of the notebook is composed of resource papers addressing topics of the various sessions and related IEC/population education issues.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1993 Apr. 30,  p.UNICEF has published this booklet to communicate its view of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the underlying societal conditions that caused HIV/AIDS to emerge and that continue to inflame its global spread. UNICEF lays out actions that we must all do in concert to decelerate and eventually stop HIV's fatal spread. These actions must address unsafe sexual practices and unsafe societal practices. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women serve as a plan of action that covers the degree of social mobilization needed to produce social change as well as to focus attention on those at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS in developing countries--women and youth. AIDS combines issues of poverty, inequality, culture, and sexuality in complex ways. UNICEF-advocated actions to effect necessary change include: promoting the healthy development of youth so they can control their lives, providing sexual and reproductive health services, improving health care practices, and caring for and counseling families afflicted by AIDS. Focusing on out-of-school youth will reach most youth. Reorientation of curricula toward improved teacher education, better peer support, youth-friendly health services, life skills education, counseling, and community awareness is needed for schools. Promotion of sexual and reproductive health is essential. Youth and women's groups need the support of the media, religious leaders, policymakers, human rights organizations, the private sector, and parent-teacher groups. Societal tools, not scientific tools, will slow the spread of HIV infection. Youth and women must have access to education and vocational training to improve their quality of life. They need access to a safe, receptive place where they can talk about reproductive and sexual issues and secure condoms. Empowerment of youth and women will lead to a stop in the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
In: Issues in contemporary international health, edited by Thomas A. Lambo and Stacey B. Day. New York, New York, Plenum Medical Book Company, 1990. 113-33.The causes of mortality and disability in the world are reviewed, and the 4 most important mechanisms for promoting maternal and child health are proposed: female literacy, family planning, community-based efforts and global strategies for international cooperation. The health needs of women, children and adolescents, who make up the majority and the most vulnerable segment of the population, must be met. Malnutrition is the single most important cause of health problems through adult life, and affects 20 million children in Africa alone. Statistics are cited for infant mortality, vaccine-preventable diseases, diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections, infant mortality and maternal mortality. The key determinant of infant survival is female literacy. Existing scientific cooperation is the closet thing we have to a global international community. An example of applied scientific solutions to health care is the risk approach in maternal health care. 2 strategies of scientific cooperation have emerged: the international center model in a country or region to address a specific problem, and the task force model, as used effectively by WHO, UNICEF, and the Task Force for Child Survival. Research topics on health in developing countries are listed that could be tackled by universities and scientific networks, e.g. scientific research is lacking on how to make household hygiene effective in poor countries. A concerted global research effort and surveillance effort is needed for AIDS.
London, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 26 p.This 3-year plan describes how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) intends to pursue the common goals of its membership: guide and encourage program development at all levels; indicate IPPF international strategies which support the work of Family Planning Associations (FPAs); and provide a statement to the outside world of IPPF's contribution to family planning during the plan period. The Plan has 7 Action Areas which reflect IPPF's overall priorities: the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; coverage and quality of family planning services; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male involvement in family planning; and resource development. Within each Action Area, the discussion suggests national strategies by which FPAs can achieve their objectives, while international strategies identify activities through which volunteers and staff can carry out their roles at the international and regional level. Action Area 1 outlines measures to carry out IPPF's basic commitment to support the efforts of FPAs in their national environments and describes how IPPF intends to play its full part as an international federation of voluntary family planning organizations. Continued efforts are needed thoughout the Federation to increase understanding of the pioneering role of FPAs and IPPF in advancing family planning as part of overall development and social change. The objectives of Action Area 1 -- the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning -- are to improve FPA program effectiveness, to strengthen the contribution of volunteers to planned parenthood; to broaden community participation in family planning; and to intensify understanding of the role of nongovernmental organizations in family planning. The objectives of Action Area II are to increase adherence to family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to the exercise of the human right to family planning, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people and development, resources, and the environment. Objectives of the remaining 5 Action Areas include: ensure greater availability and accessibility of family planning services; raise and maintain standards of family planning services and increase their acceptability; improve and expand the education components of family planning programs; improve and extend family life education and counseling activities for young people; improve and expand efforts at the community level to intergrate family planning with women's development; increase male contraceptive practice; and focus effort on meeting unmet need.
Nutritional anemia: its understanding and control with special reference to the work of the World Health Organization.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1979 Feb; 32(2):368-417.Since 1949, the World Health Organization, recognizing the public health importance of nutritional anemia, has sponsored efforts directed towards its understanding and control. During this period, often as a result of the work of the Organization, advances have been made in many areas. Basic understanding of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 nutrition, and the various factors which may influence the availability and requirements of these factors, has greatly increased. Surveys in a number of countries have highlighted the widespread prevalence of nutritional anemia, particularly in developing countries. The major factor responsible is a deficiency of iron, with folate deficiency also playing a role in some population groups, especially in pregnant women. There is increasing evidence that anemia adversely affects the health of individuals and may have profound socioeconomic consequences. Control of nutritonal anemia is possible by providing the deficient nutrient(s) either as therapeutic supplements or by fortification of commonly used foodstuffs. Some control programs are reviewed and suggestions for further action are outlined. The Organization still has an important role to play in this field, encouraging the development of control programs and providing advice and technical assistance to member countries. (author's)