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Your search found 25 Results

  1. 1

    WHO updates medical eligibility criteria for contraceptives.

    Rinehart W

    In: WHO updates medical eligibility criteria for contraceptives, by Ward Rinehart. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health Project [INFO], 2004 Aug. 1. (INFO Reports No. 1; USAID Grant No. GPH-A-00-02-00003-00)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued new family planning guidance, including the following: Most women with HIV infection generally can use IUDs; Women generally can take hormonal contraceptives while on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV infection, although there are interactions between contraceptive hormones and certain ARV drugs; Women with clinical depression usually can take hormonal contraceptives. More than 35 experts met at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2003 and developed this and other new guidance. The new guidance updates the Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use. This was the third expert meeting to consider medical eligibility criteria. WHO first issued the MEC in 1996; they were first updated in 2000. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    [Human development] Le développement humain.

    Semou Diouf B

    Bulletin Économique et Social du Maroc. 2000; (159):21-24.

    According to the 1998 World Human Development Report (HDR), Morocco ranks 125th with a human development indicator (HDI) of 0.557 points. The indicator elements pertaining to life expectancy, adult literacy and schooling levels remain unchanged in the HDI, but the revenue indicator has improved. These important changes have armed this HDI with a more solid methodological base. With an average per capita revenue of 3,310 dollars (PPP), Morocco finds itself in the revenue segment that has undergone the most significant revision of the standardized value. In effect, although it is not found among the principal Arab countries which have successfully reduced deficits in terms of human development during the last two decades, Morocco has, however, successfully reduced them by 27%. The progress made by this country in terms of human development in the last decade can be seen in the struggle against poverty and is reinforced and consolidated by the commitment of the Head of State for the purpose of improving the living conditions of the poor. The struggle against poverty constitutes the fundamental goal of the UNDP, around which are centered most of the programs and projects whose implementation should contribute to promoting the necessary environment for poverty reduction and consequently, to improved human development. The strategy chosen for the UNDP's intervention is broken into two parts: one is to support strategies and policies in the struggle against poverty, and the other lies in local initiatives for validating these same policies. It targets the socio-geographic aspect of action, on the one hand, benefiting the most vulnerable social groups such as women, children, and girls in the poorest areas, and on the other hand, is directed at those geographic areas that are the most ill-favored in the rural world as well as urban outskirts. The process of integrating Morocco into a free trade zone with the European Union has required the implementation of reforms at the legal and institutional level to manage ever stiffer competition in the world market.
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  3. 3

    [African Campaign against Violence towards Women. Break the silence. Say no to violence] Campagne Africaine contre les Violences Faites aux Femmes. Brise le silence. Dis non a la violence.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Regional Office for Francophone Africa and the Maghreb

    Dakar, Senegal, UNIFEM, Regional Office for Francophone Africa and the Maghreb, 1999 Apr. 96 p.

    Although women’s rights have been recognized as being human rights for approximately 50 years, women remain subjected to violence during war, in refugee camps, on the street, in the workplace, and at home. Violence against women is universal and comes in many different forms. Sexual discrimination is responsible for a global shortfall of approximately 60 million women who would otherwise be living; 1 woman every 9 seconds in brutalized in the US by her sexual partner; approximately 5000 young girls daily suffer genital mutilation; more than 5000 women are killed each year in India for dowry-related reasons; and over 15,000 women were raped during the Rwandan conflict. This paper explores the following aspects of violence conducted against women globally: general facts upon such violence, domestic violence, female genital mutilation, dowry-related murders, murder committed for honor, war crimes against women, rape and sexual abuse in civil society, and trafficking in women. African campaigns against violence committed against women are then described for Senegal, Mali, Morocco, Chad, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mauritania, Togo, Cape Verde, and Cameroon. Examples are also presented from projects financed by the United Nations’ Special Fund to End Violence against Women.
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  4. 4

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  5. 5

    [Elsa Zylberstein emphasizes information for safer motherhood] Elsa Zylberstein insiste sur l'information pour une maternite plus sure.

    Zylberstein E

    Equilibres et Populations. 2001 May; (68):4.

    During a trip organized by Equilibres & Population to Senegal and Mali, Elsa Zylberstein, UNFPA ambassador, met with Central and Western African presidents’ wives. Although she already knew about maternal mortality-related problems, Zylberstein began to truly understand them once in Africa visiting field projects conducted by local organizations. Information is essential to improving maternity conditions in Africa. In particular, Mrs. Zylberstein stresses the need to provide young girls with professional training, and encourage the professionalization of midwives. For many maternal mortality- related problems, women and their husbands must be directly convinced of the importance of ensuring mothers’ access to primary healthcare services during pregnancy and motherhood. They must also be convinced that family planning can contribute to their well-being and the fight against maternal mortality involves recognizing women’s status. Following pregnancy, mothers have the right to rest and be cared for. They also have the right to earn personal and familial income. Finally, women also need to learn to respect themselves.
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  6. 6

    [Violence against women: the place and the role of the physician] Violences faites aux femmes: la place et le role du medecin.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    Dakar, Senegal, UNIFEM, 1999 Aug. 115 p.

    Since 1993, in Vienna, women’s rights have been recognized as comprising fundamental human rights. Efforts are now underway to end all violence against women worldwide. United Nations global statistics indicate that approximately 25% of women in industrialized countries are beaten by their husbands, while levels of violence against women are elevated in 74 of 90 developing country rural populations. Physicians are called upon to play a range of different roles in ending violence against women. For example, physicians are needed to treat wounds inflicted through violence, including those suffered during rape and genital mutilation; to provide professional testimony upon relevant medical documentation and in courts of law; to evaluate victims’ psychological and medico-psychological statuses; and to conduct autopsies to determine the specific circumstances of individuals’ violent deaths. This paper focuses upon various elements of medical law in the following sections: comments from the President of the National Order of Physicians, the extent of violence against women, clinically based testimony upon violence against women, physicians’ court appearances, court documents, psychiatry related to violence against women, psychological and psychosociological aspects of violence against women, and Senegalese law and violence.
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  7. 7

    [Violence against women: the state of the law] Violences faites aux femmes: l'etat du droit.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    Dakar, Senegal, UNIFEM, 1998 Jul. 135 p.

    A general report is presented upon the UNIFEM regional seminar held in Dakar during February 23-25, 1998, upon legislation governing the commission of violence against women. The seminar was held to examine the status of prevailing laws against such violence in the sub-region, to identify shortcomings and imperfections, to conceive strategies for improvement, to share opinions upon the problem, and to strengthen national capacities to respond legislatively to violence committed against women. The nature of existing legislation governing violence against women is described for the following countries represented at the seminar: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, and Chad. Civil law legislation pertaining to women’s human rights defense groups is discussed, as well as seminar results and recommendations. This document was published as part of a regional campaign against violence committed toward women, launched by UNIFEM on July 31, 1998, Pan-African Women’s Day. The campaign was implemented with the aim of showing that the different forms of political, economic, and social discrimination and violence marginalizing women violate basic human rights.
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  8. 8

    [AIDS: the second decade. Centering efforts on women and children] SIDA: la deuxieme decennie. Centrer les efforts sur les femmes et les enfants.


    [New York, New York], UNICEF, [1994]. 30 p.

    Each day, 5000 people worldwide are newly infected with HIV, mostly children and young people. The HIV infection rate is 2-3 times higher among female adolescents than among male adolescents. Regarding AIDS, more attention is given to attitudes and individual sexual behaviors than to social attitudes and behaviors affecting women, youths, and the poor. However, social behaviors influence sexuality and often lead to engagement in risky sex practices which facilitate HIV transmission. The risk of contracting HIV is higher among poor and disenfranchised populations. This brochure describes UNICEF policy on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and which social conditions facilitate its global spread. It also describes the coordinated measures needed to slow and possibly stop the spread of the AIDS pandemic. Those measures need to combat both risky sexual behavior and harmful social attitudes. Drawing from principles and accords established in the Child Rights Convention and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, UNICEF is working in a number of ways to effect positive social change, while according priority attention to population groups at particular risk in developing countries, such as women and young people.
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  9. 9

    [Project on the promotion of girls' schooling in a rural environment. Exploratory and regulatory evaluation. Preliminary version] Projet relatif a la promotion de la scolarisation de la fille en milieu rural. Evaluation exploratoire-regulatrice. Version preliminaire.

    Rami A; Raouane M; Allemano E

    [Rabat], Morocco, Ministere de l'Education Nationale, 1996 Jun. 92, [54] p.

    A project to promote the formal education of rural girls was implemented during 1992-96 as part of a cooperative program between the government of Morocco and UNICEF. Destined to extend into 1998, the project aims to increase the net rates of school attendance among rural girls to 50%, 65%, and 80% in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively; to keep 80% of rural girls enrolled in school at least throughout the first cycle of basic education; and to promote literacy, especially among young girls and women. To achieve these goals, the project was developed around the 4 following axes: social mobilization to support the formal education of girls in rural areas, improving the supply of and demand for such education, teacher training, and community involvement in developing education programs for rural girls. Results are presented from the evaluation of a sample of 10 of the 17 provinces involved in the project. Results are presented upon the characteristics of surveyed populations, obstacles to educating girls in rural areas, social mobilization, improving the demand for and supply of formal education, teaching training, community involvement, and priority actions to promote the education of girls in rural areas. Recommendations are made before the final section of annexes of reference terms, tables of measures taken, data collection tools, and indicators of enrollment rates in the surveyed provinces.
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  10. 10

    [Beijing + 5: the gains should be preserved] Pekin + 5: les acquis ont pu etre maintenus.

    de Sainte Lorette C

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Jun-Jul; (59):4-5.

    A special UN session was held in New York during June 6-10, 2000, to evaluate the progress achieved since the Beijing Conference on Women. According to Françoise Gaspard, France’s representative to the UN Commission on Women’s Rights, negotiations at the special session were particularly difficult. It is always hard to create a satisfactory conference declaration when the rule of the day is consensus. A few countries always oppose such consensus. Latin American countries, however, abandoned their former position similar to that of Iran and the Vatican to instead adopt far more progressive stances upon reproductive rights. Progress is occurring slowly. While still not enough, the conference’s final statement marks a certain number of advances in the fight against violence, women’s role in decision-making, and education, with no steps back in the areas of contraception and abortion. The resulting declaration is therefore not regressive, even though it could have been stronger. It will hopefully serve as a reference statement which nongovernmental organizations will be able to cite when reminding countries of their obligations. Countries should get together to discuss the rising level of prostitution. The important roles of NGOs and French-country involvement were also recognized during the conference, as well as the priorities of education and funding.
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  11. 11

    [Study of the prevalence of STDs among pregnant Tunisian women, and a validation of the clinical algorithm proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for managing STDs] Etude de la prevalence des MST chez les femmes tunisiennes enceintes et validation de l'algorithme clinique propose par l'OMS pour la prise en charge des MST.

    Ben Aissa-Hamzaoui R; Kouki S; Ben Hamida A; Kechrid A; Gueddana N

    Contraception, Fertilite, Sexualite. 1999 Nov; 27(11):785-90.

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are public health problems in most of the world s countries because of their growing prevalence and their role as cofactors in HIV transmission. Results are presented from a study conducted on a sample of 409 pregnant Tunisian women during April-July 1996. These women underwent clinical and bacteriological exams as part of an assessment of the most frequently encountered STDs in the country. 1.7% of the women were under 20 years old and 6.6% were over age 40 years, although 30.1% of the women were 30-34 years old. 91% of the women were married, while 6.3% were divorced or unmarried. 65.7% were consulting health services to request an abortion. 42.3% of blood samples drawn were seropositive for the presence of STDs. The most often seen sexually transmitted agents were Trichomonas vaginalis with a prevalence of 5.6%, and Chlamydia trachomatis with a prevalence of 1.7%. No case of gonococcal infection was observed. Since this sample of women was comprised of pregnant women without any particular risk factors, these study results can be extrapolated to the general population. The WHO syndromic approach to STD management was also validated as a less than ideal tool, but one which is nonetheless highly useful when laboratory facilities are unavailable. The WHO approach also allows the diagnosis and treatment of the patient from the initial consultation.
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  12. 12

    Action Programme 1997-1999. Resolutions and recommendations adopted at the IAW XXX Congress, Calcutta, India, December 1996. Declaration of principle. Programme d'Action 1997-1999 base sur les resolutions et les recommandations adoptees au 30eme Congres Triennal de l'AIF de Calcutta, en Indes, en Decembre 1996. Declaration de principe.

    International Alliance of Women

    [Unpublished] 1996. [4] p.

    This document, which presents the priority action program for 1997-99 of the International Alliance of Women (IAW), opens by affirming the principle that women's rights are human rights and that human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. The document also calls on all affiliate and associate organizations to monitor fulfillment of the commitment of 189 UN-member states to implementation of the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific priority actions are then described in five areas. First, governments and IAW member organizations are urged to promote the maximum participation of women in political life by supporting women's civil and political rights. Second, governments and the mass media are asked to eradicate illiteracy among women (and promote legal literacy) and overcome the prejudice that bars girls' access to schools. Third, the document notes that poverty disproportionately affects women and requests governments, communities, and member organizations to take specific steps to help women overcome poverty. Next, the document calls for establishment of an International Convention on the Elimination of Violence against Women and Children and identifies steps that should be taken to eradicate trafficking in women and children, domestic violence, and violence in general. Finally, the document calls on governments to protect women's health by taking specific actions, such as implementing reproductive rights, promoting healthy nutrition, and eradicating substance abuse.
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  13. 13

    [The rights of the woman] Les droits de la femme.

    Chtioui Aouij E

    [Tunis, Tunisia], SNIPE "La Press", 1992. 139, [6] p. (Tunisie et les Droits de l'Homme)

    This work describes international conventions and Tunisian legislation regarding the rights of women and assesses the status of women in Tunisia. The first chapter summarizes the contents of the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted by the UN in 1979, and other international conventions directly or indirectly concerning women's rights. Specific articles of the Convention are then examined in sequence, and their counterparts in the Tunisian constitution and legislation are identified and discussed. Articles 1-3 concern policies and laws to end discrimination and assure advancement of women, and article 4 concerns temporary measures to accelerate achievement of equality between the sexes. Subsequent articles concern sex roles and stereotypes, prostitution, political and public life, international participation and representation, nationality, education, employment, health, social and economic advantages such as family allowances and credit, rural women, legal equality, and marital and family law. The annex includes the text of the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women".
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  14. 14

    [The rights of the rural woman] Les droits de la femme rurale.

    Agrebi S

    [Tunis, Tunisia], SNIPE "La Presse", 1992. 103 p. (Tunisie et les Droits de l'Homme)

    Although the juridical foundations for the emancipation of women were established after independence, rural women in Tunisia continue to suffer severe discrimination. This work presents a socioeconomic profile of Tunisian rural women and discusses national and international initiatives to protect their rights. UN actions to improve the status of women, recommendations and resolutions in favor of rural women at the 1985 World Conference on Women in Nairobi, the 1992 Geneva summit on the economic promotion of rural women, and actions of specialized UN agencies for rural women are first discussed. The next chapter examines the legal rights of rural women in Tunisia, with analysis of the Personal Status Code, the constitution, and policies and legislation in the areas of education, employment, social protection, health, family planning, agricultural development, and training. The role of women in the political life of Tunisia and steps taken to encourage greater participation are examined. The discussion of the role of rural women in economic and social development includes descriptions of the Program for Rural Development, the Program of Integrated Regional Development, the Program for Social Advancement of Needy Families, and projects specifically designed to benefit rural women and community development. The final chapter assesses future prospects for improvement, including a summary of the Seventh Economic and Social Development Plan. The annexes include a list of organizations involved with advancement of the rural population and a reprint of the Geneva Declaration for Rural Women.
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  15. 15

    Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)

    This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
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  16. 16

    [And after Cairo? Women: a good starting point for Beijing. An interview with Helene Gisserot] Le Caire, et apres? Femmes: un bon point de depart pour Pekin. Un entretien avec Helene Gisserot.

    Toubon R

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 1994 Oct; (4):4-5.

    An interview with the woman coordinating France's preparation for the Global Conference on Women in 1995 in Peking, China, addresses how women's role at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) set the stage for their role for the 1995 conference. An entire chapter of the ICPD program of action was dedicated to the role and status of women. Other parts of the program of action address education of girls. Women were not forgotten at Cairo because they were physically present and expressed themselves, no one questioned those positions that favored women because they formed a consensus, and of the established link between development policy, environmental problems, population growth, and women's status. The conference in Peking will further establish the link between development and women's status. Many countries at Cairo approved the consensus document but women are second class citizens in their countries, making it difficult for the program of action to become reality. Projects for education, access to health care, and many other things address societal problems which, by definition, can only evolve very slowly. It is paradoxical and shocking that the Global Conference on Women will take place in China which has little respect for human rights, let alone for the right of girls to live. China also uses sterilization of women in Tibet as an instrument of genocide. Perhaps having the conference in China will change things. France's coordinator of preparations for this conference is encouraged because debates in Cairo were always calm and stripped of all aggressiveness. The conference in Cairo provides those preparing for Peking a good starting point because delegates at the Peking conference will not return to that which was already acquired in Cairo.
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  17. 17

    [And after Cairo? It is now that the difficulties begin] Le Caire, et apres? C'est maintenant que les difficultes commencent.

    Speidel J


    The international community and the UN should be congratulated for adopting a strategy and a very clear action plan at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The process leading up to and during the conference allowed all member nations, even the most conservative members, to communicate their interest in problems associated with population and development and their approaches to solving the problems. The members reached consensus and adopted the program of action. Conference delegates finalized the program of action by concentrating on a global vision of population policy. They recognized the need for unrestricted access to high quality family planning services and the right of women. The document calls for improved reproductive health in developing countries. Specifically, it pronounces the need for improved sanitary conditions during childbirth, access to safe abortion where it is legal, and successive steps to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Implementation of the program of action poses some difficulties, however. Will the most developed countries provide the necessary financial resources to meet the needs of family planning and reproductive health? Many such countries have promised to contribute US$ 17 billion to meet these needs in developing countries. The US plans to contribute US$ 600 million in 1995. Japan will contribute US$ 3 billion over the next 7 years, 33% of which will go to family planning. Germany plans to give US$ 2 billion over the same period. The European Union plans to give US$ 400 million each year. Other countries also plan to contribute (UK and Belgium). We must make sure that the words adopted in Cairo become reality for the men and women of the planet.
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  18. 18

    [And after Cairo? Sixteen chapters for a program of action] Le Caire, et apres? Seize chapitres pour un programme d'action.


    The platform adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo has 16 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses how women must be partners in development otherwise the international community cannot successfully tackle problems linked to population and the development. Each State, based on its own laws, economic priorities, and religious, moral, and cultural values as long as they conform to human rights as defined by the international community, must put the 15 principles enumerated in chapter 2 into effect. Another chapter addresses the links between population, economic growth, and sustainable development. One chapter is dedicated to equality between the sexes. Society's base unit, the family, is discussed in another chapter. Population growth and structure comprise another chapter. Reproductive health and family planning are covered in another chapter. Other chapters address health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology and research (biomedical, social, and economic); national initiatives; international cooperation; and association with the nongovernmental sector.
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  19. 19

    Programme of activities 1992. Programmes d'activites pour 1992.

    Centre for African Family Studies [CAFS]

    Nairobi, Kenya, CAFS, 1992. 27 p.

    Described in this document are the courses and other activities of the Center for African Family Studies (CAFS), a training institution established by the African Regional Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. CAFS's programs include: 1) training courses aimed at developing program management skills, providing updates on contraceptive technology, disseminating information on family planning and population, and outlining appropriate IEC strategies; 2) seminar and consultations for opinion leaders and policy makers on population issues, including Women and Health issues; 3) research to strengthen family planning and population programs; and 4) workshops to produce teaching materials. The document describes the objectives and contents of the 17 courses offered by CAFS in 1992, as well as its research agenda. Also described are 9 additional courses offered in French.
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  20. 20

    Women and cancer. Les femmes et le cancer.

    Stanley K; Stjernsward J; Koroltchouk V


    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.
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  21. 21

    [The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women] La Convention des Nations Unies sur l'Elimination de Toutes les Formes de Discrimination a l'Egard des Femmes

    Ramarosaona Z

    [Unpublished] 1990 Jun. Paper presented at the 5th Annual International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) Conference: A Decade of the Women's Convention: Where are we? What's next?, Roosevelt Hotel, New York City, Jan. 20-22, 1990. 9 p.

    The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women is a necessary document because in spite of all the Conventions and Laws passed since 1945 at the United Nations establishing equality between men and women, women continue to suffer from discrimination. The notion of gender equality predates the UN; in the 19th century such discussions became the basis of the Declaration of Human Rights. The Women's Convention is a judicial instrument that incorporates all previous research and outcomes regarding discrimination towards women. This paper discusses the contents of Articles 2, 6, and 11. Article 2 demands the abolition of those laws, traditions and practices that discriminate against women, and recommends the creation of a judicial system to protect the equality between men and women. Article 6 discusses the role of men and women in marriage and the family. The paper concludes that at all levels, political, economic and social, society is far from practicing the notion of gender equality. Article 11 invites all governments and non-governmental organizations to implement the principles of the Convention. The paper traces the history of political discussions regarding implementation of the Convention and concludes sadly that only a small number of countries have ratified it after 10 years of its adoption at the United Nations.
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  22. 22

    [Introduction] Introduction.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Secretariat

    In: Infant and childhood mortality and socio-economic factors in Africa. (Analysis of national World Fertility Survey data) / Mortalite infantile et juvenile et facteurs socio-economiques en Afrique. (Analyse des donnees nationales de l'Enquete Mondiale sur la Fecondite), [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, ECA, 1987. 1-4. (RAF/84/P07)

    After completion of the World Fertility Survey, the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) held a workshop for representatives from 15 African countries to utilize the SPSS program for demographic data analysis to prepare reports on their own countries' infant and child mortality trends. The introduction to the report on the workshop highlights findings which include infant mortality rates around 90/1000 births in Kenya, Nigeria and Cameroon, and 100 or more in Benin, Ivory Coast, and Senegal. Mortality was less than 80 in Sudan and Mauritania, possibly reflecting serious deficiencies in the data. Childhood mortality was over 100/1000 in Benin, and lowest in Kenya and Ivory Coast, around 70. There were clear indications of decline in mortality in the last 20 years in Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal. Among the variables examined for their influence on mortality, maternal education and birth intervals clearly were the strongest, suggesting directions for policy.
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  23. 23

    [Two approaches of the major positions] Deux prises de position majeures.


    In: I-Gelle, F. Differer la vie: les eglises et les etats face a l'avortement et a la contraception. (To postpone life: the churches and states face abortion and contraception.) (FR) Paris, Librairie Maloine, 1975. p. 19-30

    On December 10, 1966, at the UN, 30 heads of state from all over the world signed a Declaration on Population. This very important document recognized the right of people to control their fertility, recognized that the demographic problem is one of the dangers menacing humanity, and that family planning is in the vital interest of both families and nations. About 2 years later, in April-May 1968, the International Conference on People's Rights of the UN met in Teheran; 84 countries and several international agencies were represented. The conference centered its discussions on the protection of the family and of children, when special attention to the status of women in the world, and the right of every couple to freely decide about controlling their fertility.
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  24. 24

    Injectable progestogens - officials debate but use increases. Les progestatifs injectables : les autorites en debattent, mas l'usage s'en repand.

    Rinehart W; Winter J

    Population Reports. Series K: Injectables and Implants. 1975 Mar; (1):[16] p.

    A report on the status of the injectable contraceptive agents, Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) and Norigest is presented. Depo-Provera is distributed in 64 countries, though it is not available in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Japan. The drug is usually administered in single 150 mg injections every 3 months, and doses of 300-400 mg every 6 months have been studied. The contraceptive effect of Depo-Provera is primarily through its ability to inhibit ovulation. Norigest exerts its effect by altering the cervical mucus. The suppression of ovulation is most likely caused by action on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, resulting in inhibition of the luteinizing hormone surge. Depo-Provera causes an atrophic endometrium, while Norigest has varying endometrial effects. The reported pregnancy rates for Depo-Provera are usually less than 1%, while those for Norigest are slightly higher. Most method failures occur either shortly after the 1st injection or at the end of an injection interval. Menstrual disorders have been the primary reason for discontinuation. The injectables can cuase shorter or longer cycles, increased or decreased menstrual flow, and spotting. Depo-Provera users experience increased amenorrhea with continued use, while normal cycles increasingly reappear in Norigest users. Cyclic estrogen therapy has been effective in treating excessive or irregular bleeding and amenorrhea. Long-acting estrogen injections have been administered in combination with Depo-Provera or Norigest, though the studies are limited in number. Weight gain of up to 9 pounds has been reported for users of Depo-Provera. Some researchers have found that Depo-Provera raises blood glucose levels, while others have reported it does not. No adverse effects have been reported for injectables on blood clotting, adrenal or liver function, blood pressure, lactation, and metabolic or endocrine functions. The continuation rate for Depo-Provera is reportedly higher than that for oral contraceptives. Generally, 60% of the acceptors will use the method for at least 1 year. Effective counseling on the menstrual alterations resulting from injectables can increase continuation of the method. The return of fertility in Depo-Provera users usually requires 13 months from the time of the last injection, while the afertile period in Norigest users is about 6 months from the time of the last injection. Instances of fetal masculinization as a result of Depo-Provera use have not occurred. The possibility that Depo-Provera can cause cervical carcinoma in situ has not been substantiated by the evidence; doubt about this possible association has prevented its approval as a contraceptive method in the U.S. Although Depo-Provera and Norigest have caused breast nodules in laboratory animals, there is no evidence to suggest that this effect would occur in human. Despite the advantages of injectables, family planning officials have been reluctant to permit its unrestricted use, primarily because it cannot be withdrawn guickly enough if problems arise and because the actual effect on fertility is not yet known. Nonetheless, the use of Depo-Provera has increased in recent years. The IPPF and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities currently supply the drug.
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  25. 25

    [Information handbook for women in Africa] Manuel d'information pour la femme en Afrique.

    International Women's Tribune Centre [IWTC]; United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. African Training and Research Centre for Women

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, Centre Africain de Recherche et de Formation pour la Femme, 1982 May. [184] p.

    This document contains a variety of information intended to provide an introduction and overview of the many activities possible for women participating in development programs in Africa. Its essential goal is to reinforce and promote the exchange of ideas, data, experiences, and information among African women. 4 main sections contain information on financing and technical assistance, projects for women, publications of the African Center for Research and Training of Women (CARFF), and information on CARFF. The section on financing and technical assistance contains an introductory essay on transforming an idea into a written proposal, including information on collecting data, evaluating resources, defining the project, choosing a source of assistance, and organizing the proposal. Examples and model documents as well as a bibliography are included, followed by a listing of possible sources of funding from the UN, governments, private foundations and organizations, other types of assistance, and multinational firms. The financing policies, geographic preferences, and instructions for submitting a proposal are specified for each potential donor. The section on projects for women contains a compilation of ongoing projects in agriculture, education, training of project leaders, income generating projects, administration and credit, small industries, development planning, and research on women. Each description specifies the title of the project, the sponsoring organization, participants, duration, project site, external aid, a brief description of project activities, and the name of the person to contact for information. The 3rd section contains a bibliography of works published by CARFF and others on topics pertaining to women and development, agriculture, health and family life, appropriate technology, communications, employment, education, and the status of women. The final section contains information on the history, goals, program, current projects, and collaborating agencies of CARFF.
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