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  1. 1

    [A guide to providing reproductive health services] Guia para prestacao de services em saude reprodutiva.

    Brazil. Ceara. Secretaria da Saude. Programma Viva Mulher; Brazil. Ceara. Secretaria da Saude. Programa de Saude do Adolescente

    Fortaleza, Brazil, Secretaria da Saude, 1998. xxvi, 432 p.

    The Viva Mulher [Healthy Woman] Program developed by the Secretariat of Health of the State of Ceará (SESA-CE), in partnership with several local, national and international institutions, was conceived after recognition of the unfavorable health situation of women throughout the State. Sensitized by the size of the problem and encouraged by other successful initiatives, such as the Community Health Agent program and the Healthy Child program, the results of which were translated into a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in the coverage of Basic Health Actions, the State Government resolved to promote a broad mobilization of institutions interested in the problems so as to develop intensive joint efforts involving society as a whole in an attempt to make a significant change in the health profile of women in Ceará. The first concrete act was the holding of the "Woman, Health, Life" seminar in Fortaleza in August 1992, which had more than 1,000 participants, to launch the Healthy Woman program on the basis of directives from the Ministry of Health (PAISM). The Healthy Woman program was associated from the beginning with the United Nations Population Fund (FNUAP), which proposed to offer technical assistance and financial resources through a four-year cooperation project with the State Government. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), collaborating agencies of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and other international entities later joined in the process and have been cooperating in various complementary manners. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    [Women's right to participation in the Peruvian legal system] El derecho a la participacion de la mujer en el sistema juridico peruano.

    Bazan Chacon I

    In: Los derechos de la mujer: comentarios juridicos. Tomo II, edited by Maria Isabel Rosas Ballinas and Mery Vargas Cuno. Lima, Peru, DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, 1998 Nov. 267-76.

    This work reflects on the right of women to participate as it is treated in the international juridical system, in constitutional law, and in Peruvian legislation. The right to participate is based on the essential dignity of the person, an inherent trait rather than a faculty conceded by the state or social group. The right to participate is a human right characterized by universality, integrality, and indivisibility with other rights. Participation may be exercised in individual or associated form, and includes the spheres of political life (traditionally the most developed) as well as economic, social, and cultural life. A country is democratic because its regimen is not just representative, but participatory. The work examines the right to participate as treated in such international instruments as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Civil and Political Rights Pact, and the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, before examining its treatment in the Peruvian constitution and legislation. The work concludes that the incorporation of international law as part of Peruvian law situates the international instruments alluding to women’s rights at the highest level. The interpreter should apply the most protective instrument, whether it is the written text of the constitution, the international human rights treaties, or the declarations of rights. If the internal law offers inferior protection, the constitutional or international law should be applied. Suggestions are presented for legislation that would promote exercise of the right to participation.
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  3. 3

    [International protection of the human rights of women] La proteccion internacional de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.

    Bazan Chacon I

    In: Los derechos de la mujer: comentarios juridicos. Tomo II, edited by Maria Isabel Rosas Ballinas and Mery Vargas Cuno. Lima, Peru, DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, 1998 Nov. 304-12.

    Three cases in Peru are described to illustrate mechanisms of international law available for protection of the human rights of women that may be used in individual cases. In principal, the protection offered by any international organization is complementary to that provided by internal jurisdictions. Most questions must first be submitted to internal courts or administrative channels. Article 55 of Peru’s 1993 Constitution asserts that treaties ratified and in force are part of national law. The constitution also states that recognized norms and freedoms are to be interpreted in conformity with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international treaties and accords. Some of the mechanisms of human rights protection belong to the universal system of the UN, while others pertain to the regional system or the Organization of American States. Peru is tied to the UN system through the International Civil and Political Rights Pact, whose human rights committee of 18 experts receives individual complaints alleging violations of the rights protected by the Pact. The Interamerican Human Rights Commission and the Interamerican Human Rights Court are the main regional mechanisms. The Commission acts as a sort of public prosecutor and can conclude its procedures with reports containing recommendations. The three cases described concerned women charged with involvement in terrorism. Recourse to international human rights protection was especially valuable during the recent armed conflict in Peru, when both sides violated the human rights of many women. But the processes are slow, and the Peruvian government did not follow the recommendations eventually produced. The work concludes with a discussion of the advantages of complying and the legal issues involved in applying resolutions of international organisms to the human rights laws of Peru.
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  4. 4

    [International system of protection of the human rights of women] Sistema internacional de proteccion de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.

    Bernales Ballesteros E

    In: Derechos humanos de las mujeres. Aportes y reflexiones, [compiled by] Movimiento Manuela Ramos. Lima, Peru, Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 1998 Nov. 161-97. (Serie Mujer y Derechos Humanos 6)

    The evolution over the past few decades of international law protecting the human rights of women is described, and the international instruments designed to protect these rights are assessed from the perspective of jurisprudence. The first sections examine factors that have allowed implantation of a culture of human rights throughout the entire planet to emerge as a goal of international law, and describe some assumptions underlying the theme of human rights of women. Documents that were crucial in the evolution are then analyzed, including the UN Charter, the first instrument expressly signaling the equality of rights of men and women, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The UN Commission on the Juridical and Social Condition of Women and the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 are also discussed. Mechanisms for international protection of the rights of women are examined, including the Declaration on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Other organs for protection that are discussed include the Human Rights Committee and the Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and regional mechanisms such as the Interamerican Human Rights Commission and Court and the Interamerican Conventions on Political Rights of Women, Civil Rights of Women, and Against Gender Violence. The final section contrasts the normative development of protections for women’s human rights with actual practices, and identifies the next steps that should be taken.
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  5. 5

    [Presentation to] 54th session of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights [on] Item 9(a): Women's rights.

    Gaer F

    [Unpublished] 1998 Apr 6. 4 p.

    In her presentation to the 54th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights (CHR) in 1998, the US delegate notes that when the UN was formed, women had to lobby for substitution of the wording "everyone" for "all men" in the Universal Declaration's description of who was "born free and equal." Then, decades passed before the Vienna World Conference acknowledged that women's rights are human rights. The Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) recognized that human rights impact every critical area of concern in its Platform for Action and asked that violators of women's human rights be held accountable. The WCW devoted nine pages in its Platform for Action to violence against women, a substantial increase from the two paragraphs offered by the Nairobi World Conference in 1985. Now nations must adapt the global human rights machinery to mainstream women's rights and stop the abuses women suffer. As an indication of its commitment to this cause, the US has allocated an additional $10 million to fight violence against women abroad and has announced a major new initiative to combat trafficking in women and girls. Domestically, the US passed a "Violence Against Women Act" making certain offenses federal crimes and crafting a nation-wide response to domestic violence. The success of CHR efforts in this arena will depend upon how well abuses of women's human rights are monitored and reported. Thus, it is essential to include investigators in country visits who understand gender-specific analysis and reporting and can bolster the excellent efforts of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women.
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  6. 6

    World Health Day - April 7, 1998. Invest in the Future: Support Safe Motherhood. Resource booklet.

    American Association for World Health

    Washington, D.C., American Association for World Health, 1998. 47 p.

    World Health Day, established by the World Health Organization (WHO), is celebrated on April 7 in the 191 WHO member countries. WHO has designated Safe Motherhood as the common theme for 1998 World Health Day activities. Safe Motherhood is an international initiative aimed at ensuring women have safe pregnancies and deliveries and healthy infants. This manual was prepared as a resource for those involved in the planning of World Health Day 1998 in the US, where the slogan is: "Invest in the Future: Support Safe Motherhood." After providing background information on the global importance of the prevention of maternal mortality and morbidity, the manual sets forth detailed guidelines on forming an organizing committee, selecting events and activities, choosing a location, creating a planning schedule, identifying community resources, defining target audiences, using the mass media to publicize events, hospitality arrangements, and program evaluation. World Health Day activities appropriate for individuals, communities, workplaces, schools, religious organizations, government agencies, and health care settings are suggested. Also included, for possible reproduction, is a series of fact sheets on topics such as pregnancy-related mortality in the US, maternal nutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, family planning, prenatal care, warning signs during pregnancy, and breast feeding. Finally, lists of state contacts and hotlines are appended.
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