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In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 128.On 22 February 1990, Paraguay ratified this convention guaranteeing the political rights of women.
Socio-economic development and fertility decline: an application of the Easterlin synthesis approach to data from the World Fertility Survey: Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka and Tunisia.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. ix, 115 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/101)The relationship between fertility decline and development is explored for Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia. The study applies Richard Easterlin and Eileen Crimmins; theoretical and empirical approach to analyzing World Fertility Survey (WFS) data in a comparative context. The paper specifically questions the strengths and weaknesses of the Easterlin-Crimmins framework when applied to developing country data, and what the framework implies about comparative fertility in these countries. 3 stages in all, an analyst 1st decomposes a couple's final number of children ever born through an intermediate variables framework. Stage 2 emphasized understanding the determinants of contraceptive use, while stage 3 explains the remaining stage-1 and stage-2 variables. A model linking the supply of children, the demand for children, and the cost of contraceptive regulation results. Stage 1 results were promising, stage 2 results were less encouraging, while stage 3 revealed a theoretically incomplete approach employing empirically weak WFS data. While the Easterlin-Crimmins approach may be promising, econometric, theoretical, and data quality and collection improvements are necessary. Among stage-3 variables open to manipulation, higher socioeconomic status was associated with delayed age at 1st marriage, lower infant and child death rates, lower numbers of children desired, increased knowledge of contraception, and reduced levels of breastfeeding. Apart from regional differences, the educational and occupational roles of women in the countries studied were of primary importance in understanding differential fertility.
NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):14-7, 27.Many unwanted births and pregnancies could be avoided by improving instructions for and comprehension of the use of oral contraceptives. Employed less than only the IUD, the oral contraceptive pill is the 2nd- most widely used reversible form of contraception, used by 8% of all married women of reproductive age. 6-20% of pill users, however, fall pregnant due to improper pill use. Improving instructions in the pill pack, ensuring that instructions are correct, and working to facilitate user understanding and motivation have been identified as priorities in maximizing the overall potential effectiveness of the pill against pregnancy. Since packets in developing countries may consist of pills in cycles of 21, 22, 28, or 35 days, providers must also be trained to instruct users in a manner consistent with the written instructions. Pictorial information should be available especially for semi-literate and illiterate audiences. The essay describes recommendation for instruction standardization and simplification put forth by Family Health International, and endorsed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. International Planned Parenthood Federation efforts to increase awareness of this issues are discussed.
INTER-AMERICAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT. BULLETIN. 1991 Jan; 8(1):1-3.Calling for renewed activity to ensure equality between men and women in Latin America, the author designates the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women as the legal standard for equality. Although all Latin American constitutions include provisions of equal rights for men and women, these countries still adhere to a patriarchal society. Cultural forces leave women in a subordinate position within the family, the workplace, education, and politics. Not only does the current economic crisis make it difficult to fund programs to improve the social conditions of women, many politicians have no sincere commitment to doing so. Nonetheless, all Latin American Countries have ratified the Convention (adopted in 1979), which recognizes the fundamental rights of women and provides a basis for international law. This principle calls for absolute equality between men and women, and requires that the signatories work towards achieving that goal. The signatories must incorporate the principle of equality in all government sectors and in all development plans. The Convention also requires governments to create a special office or ministry of women's affairs. This office is in charge of monitoring and promoting change to achieve the following: equal representation in government offices, equal participation in the workforce (including executive positions), an end to social and cultural stereotypes, and a guarantee of reproductive rights. Although many obstacles remain in the way of achieving equality, the Convention can serve as a tool for achieving that goal.