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New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al
Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue.have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
Scaling up proven innovative cervical cancer screening strategies: Challenges and opportunities in implementation at the population level in low- and lower-middle-income countries.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:63-68.The problem of cervical cancer in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) is both urgent and important, and calls for governments to move beyond pilot testing to population-based screening approaches as quickly as possible. Experiences from Zambia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, where scale-up of evidence-based screening strategies is taking place, may help other countries plan for large-scale implementation. These countries selected screening modalities recommended by the WHO that are within budgetary constraints, improve access for women, and reduce health system bottlenecks. In addition, some common elements such as political will and government investment have facilitated action in these diverse settings. There are several challenges for continued scale-up in these countries, including maintaining trained personnel, overcoming limited follow-up and treatment capacity, and implementing quality assurance measures. Countries considering scale-up should assess their readiness and conduct careful planning, taking into consideration potential obstacles. International organizations can catalyze action by helping governments overcome initial barriers to scale-up. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
Reviews In Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010 Spring; 3(2):55-65.Migraine affects as many as 37% of reproductive-age women in the United States. Hormonal contraception is the most frequently used form of birth control during the reproductive years, and given the significant proportion of reproductive-age women affected by migraine, there are several clinical considerations that arise when considering hormonal contraceptives in this population. In this review, key differences among headache, migraine, and migraine with aura, as well as strict diagnostic criteria, are described. The recommendations of the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding hormonal contraception initiation and continuation in women with these diagnoses are emphasized. Finally, information about the effect of hormonal fluctuations on headache is provided with recommendations regarding contraception counseling in patients who experience headache while taking hormonal contraception.
Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov.  p.The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2002.  p. (FHI Research Brief No. 6; RB-02-06E)Community-based workers worldwide use checklists to determine whether women are medically eligible to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). However, problems may arise when outdated and inaccurate checklists are used. With input from dozens of experts, Family Health International developed new checklists that are easily understandable and consistent with the World Health Organization's (WHO) medical eligibility requirements. (author's)
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2003 Winter; 29(2):387-416.This essay aims to advance feminist debates around globalization in a number of directions. By means of a transnational perspective that takes gender into the heart of the analysis, the essay challenges the erasure of gender from grand theories of globalization, leaving gender difference as merely a local effect of globalization (Freeman 2001). Following path-breaking work, we share the feminist view that globalization is inherently gendered and multiply produced by diverse actors in varied times and spaces and that its theorization has often been implicitly masculine. Our definition of transnationalism owes much to feminist work on globalization, which stresses the complex topographies of political-economic-social and cultural transformations at interconnected scales (the body, the national, and international) that comprise "globalization" (Katz 2001; Nagar et al. 2002; Radcliffe, Laurie, and Andolina 2002). Andean development transnationalism rises to the feminist challenge to move beyond conceptual frameworks that "implicitly construe... global as masculine and local as feminine" (Nagar et al. 2002, 1009). Compared with previous globalization analyses that took a decontextualized and institutional focus (see critique in Adam 2002), our essay delves through the national, local, and bodily scales to trace the impacts of new institutional initiatives such as gender mainstreaming and ethnodevelopment. (excerpt)
Security Council focuses on women, peace and security. [El Consejo de Seguridad se centra en la mujer, la paz y la seguridad]
UN Chronicle. 2004 Sep-Nov; 41(3): p..The participation of women is a key variable in achieving sustainable peace and security. Having recognized this principle in its resolution on women, peace and security, the Security Council, during a working roundtable meeting at the Rockefeller Foundation on the 1 July, discussed the concrete implications of resolution 1325 (2000) on their daily activities. The Permanent Missions of Canada, Chile and the United Kingdom to the United Nations and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security co-sponsored this roundtable with Council members. The discussion focus built on the recommendations developed at the first roundtable held in January 2004. In his opening remarks, Ambassador Lauro L. Baja, Jr. of the Philippines stated: "We cannot lose sight of women's concerns in the reconstruction processes. Sustainable and durable peace can only be achieved when women's concerns and contributions are incorporated in every aspect of rebuilding the peace, including social and economic reconstruction." (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2003. Presented at the Second South African Gender Based Violence and Health Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 9, 2003.  p.[Objectives of the Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women include]: Obtain valid estimates of prevalence of violence against women in several countries; Document the associations between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and health variables; Identify risk and protective factors for domestic violence against women, and compare them within and between settings; Explore and compare the strategies used by women who experience domestic violence Develop and test new instruments for measuring violence cross-culturally; Increase national capacity amongst researchers and women’s organizations working on violence; Increase sensitivity to violence among researchers, policy-makers and health providers; Promote new ethic/model of research. (excerpt)
Network. 2003; 22(4):11.For female condom users, use of a new female condom for every act of sexual intercourse continues to be recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Likewise, the female condom (a potential alternative for the male condom) is approved only for one-time use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Such positions by public health experts reflect, in part, concerns that women may be unable to clean the device adequately to make its reuse safe. However, female condom reuse has been reported in a number of settings, likely because many women cannot afford to buy multiple female condoms. Recognition that reuse is occurring -- and may be acceptable, feasible, and safe in some circumstances -- led WHO to declare in July 2002 that "the final decision on whether or not to support reuse of the female condom must ultimately be taken locally." (excerpt)
Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
Alarmed by global progress on reproductive rights, the religious right storms the United Nations. [Alarmée par les progrès du droit à la reproduction au niveau mondial, la droite religieuse livre l'assaut au Nations Unies]
Religious Consultation Report. 2002; 6(1):5, 11.This article discusses the opposition of the US-based Religious Rights activists against the global progress of women's reproductive rights at UN meetings and the opposition of the Bush administration against women's rights and children's rights.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. xvii, 75 p. (World Bank Country Study)This report provides an overview of the challenges and opportunities in addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. It presents a snapshot of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region, offers examples of ways in which Caribbean countries and regional bodies such as the Caribbean Community have responded to the epidemic, discusses alternative actions for addressing the crisis, highlights a range of strategies for donor coordination and cooperation in the region, and identifies the potential role of the World Bank in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean.
[Women's right to participation in the Peruvian legal system] El derecho a la participacion de la mujer en el sistema juridico peruano.
In: Los derechos de la mujer: comentarios juridicos. Tomo II, edited by Maria Isabel Rosas Ballinas and Mery Vargas Cuno. Lima, Peru, DEMUS, Estudio para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer, 1998 Nov. 267-76.This work reflects on the right of women to participate as it is treated in the international juridical system, in constitutional law, and in Peruvian legislation. The right to participate is based on the essential dignity of the person, an inherent trait rather than a faculty conceded by the state or social group. The right to participate is a human right characterized by universality, integrality, and indivisibility with other rights. Participation may be exercised in individual or associated form, and includes the spheres of political life (traditionally the most developed) as well as economic, social, and cultural life. A country is democratic because its regimen is not just representative, but participatory. The work examines the right to participate as treated in such international instruments as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Civil and Political Rights Pact, and the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, before examining its treatment in the Peruvian constitution and legislation. The work concludes that the incorporation of international law as part of Peruvian law situates the international instruments alluding to women’s rights at the highest level. The interpreter should apply the most protective instrument, whether it is the written text of the constitution, the international human rights treaties, or the declarations of rights. If the internal law offers inferior protection, the constitutional or international law should be applied. Suggestions are presented for legislation that would promote exercise of the right to participation.
A charade of concern: the abandonment of Colombia's forcibly displaced. [Falsa inquietud: el abandono de los colombianos desplazados por la fuerza]
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 1999 May. 24 p.The armed conflict in Colombia has forced more than 1.5 million Colombian citizens to flee their homes and communities. Caught in a nightmare of violent conflict with no prospects for reconstructing their former lives, hundreds of thousands of mostly rural peasants have found no option but to join the ranks of the internally displaced. It is noted that despite the extraordinary dimensions of the displacement phenomenon, the issue has remained a silent crisis. During November 29-December 10, 1998, the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children sent a delegation to Colombia to assess the conditions of women, children and adolescents uprooted by war and violence. The objectives of the delegation were to: 1) report on the scale of the displacement crisis; 2) determine to what extent the specific needs of women and children were being addressed by the government and international humanitarian relief; and 3) raise awareness among policymakers and among donor agencies of the status, rights and needs of women and children. Overall, the delegation found evidence of a seriously deprived displaced population which receives alarmingly low levels of humanitarian support and only minimal recognition of their plight from national and international agencies and governments. Thus, this paper also provides recommendations for ameliorating this crisis.
WOMEN'S HEALTH JOURNAL. 1996; (3):49-52.This article discusses the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the only instrument protecting the human rights of women at the international level. However, even if the convention was the best possible women's human rights documentation, there was no mechanism for reporting the abuses. The women's movement has long been pressing for the approval of the mechanism like the Optional Protocol, because they believe that the Protocol would fulfill the need in allowing the individual and collective accusations of human rights abuses. It means that a woman or a group of women can go to the committee and denounce an action as discriminatory. The committee can only receive reports and make recommendations, whereas having a Protocol would allow the committee to direct complaints, be able to investigate them, and make more specific recommendations. Those countries ratifying the CEDAW don't automatically agree to the Protocol, thus it is the country's discretion to either comply with the Protocol or not. There are also those who are against the Protocol and claim ironically that an Optional Protocol for Political and Civil rights already exists. But such mechanisms do not work for women's rights. What is most needed now is to lobby all national delegations to push the 5th Commission of the United Nations' General Assembly to approve the budget for the protocol.
New York, New York, UNIFEM, .  p.This article discusses the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) program in Latin America and the Caribbean, which is undergoing major political, legal, and economic transformation. The role of UNIFEM in the region has been to help develop women's capacities to take control of their own lives by building their strengths so that they can voice their own concerns and be their own advocates. The work revolves primarily around three programs. 1) Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation -- The work of UNIFEM was focused on the areas of credit, technical and managerial training for women, appropriate agricultural practices, and women's role in food production and other income-generating activities. Environmental issues, being of special concern, are integrated throughout. 2) Citizenship and democratization -- UNIFEM aims to promote the strength and visibility of women as leaders and decision-makers at both the national and the grassroots level by becoming participants in the political process. 3) Eliminating violence against women -- Some of the most dynamic work of UNIFEM in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to broaden the concept of human rights to include women's rights and to put a stop to violence against women. This program supports direct advocacy work in shelters and women's centers, and broad-based public education programs.
In: Gender, health, and sustainable development: a Latin American perspective. Proceedings of a workshop held in Montevideo, Uruguay, 26-29 April 1994, edited by Pandu Wijeyaratne, Janet Hatcher Roberts, Jennifer Kitts, and Lori Jones Arsenault. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1994 Sep. 19-25.A non-profit, nongovernmental organization, the Paulina Luisa Movement was founded in 1985. It is based in the poor Cerro Largo region of Uruguay. There has been considerable concern for many years over the quality of health care which women receive in public and private health clinics. Health services in Uruguay generally perpetuate the notion that men should be the ultimate authority. In the field of medicine, the male doctor, not the female doctor, holds power and knowledge. These men are usually loathe to establish equal and cooperative relationships with their female patients. In this context, four years ago, the coordinators of the movement began to design a new model for women's health care. Many programs were launched designed to improve health services for women. When HIV/AIDS emerged as a serious heath concern, it was immediately incorporated into the women's health program. This paper describes an HIV/AIDS education intervention project proposed by the Paulina Movement and other nongovernmental organizations to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1992. The project was approved by the WHO and was developed in 1993 throughout Argentina and Uruguay. Project objectives, methodology, the vulnerability of women to HIV/AIDS, and results are presented. The 82 women involved in the project learned new approaches to avoiding infection with HIV.
The promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method and child spacing through breastfeeding advocates, Contract No. OR-HO-001.
[Unpublished] . vii, 44 p. (HON-05)In Honduras, a decreasing prevalence of exclusive breast feeding, with over 50% of infants given supplemental liquids during the first 30 days, was causing health risks for the infants and pregnancy risks for the mothers (with 49% at risk within a year of giving birth). Therefore, La Leche League Honduras (LLLH) conducted an operations research study in the Las Palmas neighborhoods of San Pedro Sula to evaluate whether the combination of medical personnel and mother support groups trained in lactation and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) for child spacing would increase prevalence and duration of exclusive breast feeding, amenorrhea, and the reported use of LAM at 6 months postpartum over that found in a community served only by trained medical personnel. This project received financing in the amount of US $20,250 from Georgetown University and technical assistance from the Population Council. Specific objectives were to train at least 50 physicians, provide updated information to at least 50 nurses through a workshop, train and certify at least 36 community mothers to serve as breastfeeding advocates (BAs) with specific information on LAM and the ability to make referrals to complementary family planning (FP) services, and initiate at least 6 mother support groups which would meet monthly throughout the year-long study period of 1991. A nonequivalent pre/post-test design was used with the experimental group receiving BA training and support groups and both the control and experimental groups receiving identical training of medical staff. A July 1990 survey of the 6,794 households in the project area revealed 1083 mothers of babies less than a year old and 630 pregnant women. 848 women from this group were interviewed at baseline and 922 at endline to determine socioeconomic status, health system affiliation, reproductive history, breastfeeding and infant feeding practices, contraceptive use, and LAM knowledge and attitudes. Focus groups were held after 3 months of service delivery for qualitative evaluation, interviews were conducted, and 4 mother support groups were observed. BAs were given record-keeping forms, and referral stubs were collected. This report described the implementation of project activities and the impact of the intervention in great detail. The results suggest that training health professionals was partially successful in improving breastfeeding practices and that use of LAs was effective in promoting exclusive breast feeding and use of compatible FP methods and increasing LAM knowledge. However, analysis of women using LAM as a FP method revealed that only 6.5% correctly met all criteria. Lessons learned from this evaluation are cited and the following suggestions are made for further research: 1) develop materials to teach LAM to low-literacy women; 2) examine the role of provider bias and influence of exclusive breast feeding prevalence on LAM acceptance; 3) discover the relative effectiveness of LAM promotion by LLLH vs. FP agencies; 4) test the effectiveness of strategies which segment a target population for LAM education; and 5) determine whether LAM leads to subsequent use of other FP methods.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 67 p.Add to my documents.