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Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2006; 20(3):323-338.Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. (author's)
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD): what the Programme of Action really says.
New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC], . 7 p.Organized efforts to address key global health challenges of relevance to women—from childhood illnesses to basic family planning—began some 40 years ago. With encouragement from business, experts, and others, the United States played a leading role in launching international health efforts, which enjoyed broad political support in the country during the Nixon, Ford, and Carter Administrations. As a result, tremendous progress has been made in international health: Global life expectancy has doubled; Children’s health has been enhanced; Maternal mortality has been reduced; Preventable diseases have been eliminated; Women’s health and rights have been lifted. (excerpt)
Alarmed by global progress on reproductive rights, the religious right storms the United Nations. [Alarmée par les progrès du droit à la reproduction au niveau mondial, la droite religieuse livre l'assaut au Nations Unies]
Religious Consultation Report. 2002; 6(1):5, 11.This article discusses the opposition of the US-based Religious Rights activists against the global progress of women's reproductive rights at UN meetings and the opposition of the Bush administration against women's rights and children's rights.
[Women and reproductive rights: reflection and the fight for a new society] Mujeres y derechos reproductivos: reflexion y lucha para una nueva sociedad.
In: Cumbres, consensos y despues. Seminario Regional "Los Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres en las Conferencias Mundiales". / Reuniao de cupula, consensos e depois. Seminario Regional "Os Direitos Humanos de Mulheres nas Conferencias Mundiais", edited by Roxana Vasquez Sotelo. Lima, Peru, Comite de America Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer [CLADEM], 1996 Nov. 69-111.This examination of women and reproductive rights begins by assessing competing definitions of reproductive rights and scrutinizing documents from the UN world conferences and other international instruments that affirm unquestioned and unconditional protection of reproductive rights. The existence of the documents does not guarantee respect for reproductive rights, and much remains to be done to assure their universal observance. Past population policies implemented by national governments that have violated reproductive rights are then surveyed. Contributions of the women’s movement to the political debate about reproductive rights are examined; feminist thought influenced both the study of reproductive rights and their ultimate recognition as human rights. The women’s movement has sought to claim sexuality as an integral part of affective life, to decouple it from reproduction and to construct an identity for women not exclusively based on reproduction. Against the argument that these are purely private concerns, feminists launched the slogan “the personal is political”. Reproductive rights might be defined as the power to make informed decisions regarding family size, the raising and education of children, gynecological health, and sexual activity, and the resources to put the decisions into practice safely and effectively. Issues that remain unsettled are then discussed, beginning with questions about the scope and concept of reproductive rights. Specific themes in debate are discussed, including new technologies for infertility, formation of families by homosexuals, mental health and reproductive rights, and induced abortion. The final section discusses the need for mechanisms to mediate between social arrangements and individual decisions in order to help individuals exercise their rights of all kinds.
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Jun-Jul; (59):4-5.A special UN session was held in New York during June 6-10, 2000, to evaluate the progress achieved since the Beijing Conference on Women. According to Françoise Gaspard, France’s representative to the UN Commission on Women’s Rights, negotiations at the special session were particularly difficult. It is always hard to create a satisfactory conference declaration when the rule of the day is consensus. A few countries always oppose such consensus. Latin American countries, however, abandoned their former position similar to that of Iran and the Vatican to instead adopt far more progressive stances upon reproductive rights. Progress is occurring slowly. While still not enough, the conference’s final statement marks a certain number of advances in the fight against violence, women’s role in decision-making, and education, with no steps back in the areas of contraception and abortion. The resulting declaration is therefore not regressive, even though it could have been stronger. It will hopefully serve as a reference statement which nongovernmental organizations will be able to cite when reminding countries of their obligations. Countries should get together to discuss the rising level of prostitution. The important roles of NGOs and French-country involvement were also recognized during the conference, as well as the priorities of education and funding.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):43.The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is part of an ongoing political process that is overseeing a shift in the population paradigm from a demographic to a human rights perspective. Since the 1970s in Brazil, women's advocates have framed reproductive and sexual health in terms of citizenship rights, and the 1988 constitution recognizes some reproductive rights and the state's responsibility in providing the means of exercising these rights. Because they had also been building international coalitions and networks since the early 1990s, women were fully able to assume a leading political role at the ICPD. The agreements of the ICPD, thus, responded to women's proposals for a new, broader conceptualization of human rights. Now, the momentum leading up to the ICPD is over, resources are scarce, and the political forces that opposed the ICPD agreements have regained with power. This was manifest in Brazil when efforts to make states comply with the federal regulation of provision of abortion services in cases where the mother's life is at risk or of rape were circumvented by a carefully timed visit by the Roman Catholic Pope. In this case, the fact that no ground was lost was important because sometimes the struggle to maintain a position changes the ground even if it fails to advance the cause. While gaps remain between what has been gained in principle and in reality, it is important to avoid undervaluing the importance of the limits and possibilities inherent in legislative achievements. The next priority is to rebuild a coalition of women to face the challenges inherent in efforts to close the gap between ideology and reality.