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The new information technologies and women: essential reflections. [La nueva tecnología de la información y la mujer: reflexiones fundamentales]
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America [ECLAC], 2003 Jul. 56 p. (CEPAL - SERIE Mujer y Desarrollo No. 39)Although in Latin America and the Caribbean there is growing concern to take into account the issue of gender in public policies, this process is still embryonic and fragmented in the case of economic and technological policies. The Women and Development Unit of ECLAC is therefore implementing the project "Institutionalization of gender policies within ECLAC and sectoral ministries". The objective of this project is to strengthen technical policies, strategies, tools and capacities, both within ECLAC and in selected countries of the region, in order to encourage equity between men and women in the process and benefits of development, especially with regard to economic and labour policies. One of the activities of the project, organized by the Women and Development Unit together with the International Trade Division of ECLAC and the Centre for Women's Studies and Social Gender Relations of the University of São Paulo, was a meeting of experts on "Globalization, technological change and gender equity" in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, on 5 and 6 November 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the most relevant aspects of the opportunities and restrictions imposed by the processes of globalization and technological change, with the aim of proposing areas for research, as well as an agenda of public policies that would help to achieve equity. This document was presented as a background study for the discussion at the meeting of experts. It is clear from the text that the new technologies are taking us into a dizzy time of new exclusions, and that in addition to being a material reality they are also a discursive product with effects on institutions, public policies and individuals. The study reviews an extensive amount of theoretical literature, as well as most of the research concerning the inclusion and relationship of women in connection with the new information technologies and skills. This review identifies the major obstacle to reinforcing the potential positive impacts of the new technologies as the lack of information on how they, and especially computers, can help policies, and also individual women, to achieve their goals. It is also shown that we are dealing with two disconnected concepts: the information society and the information economy, and the gender perspective is presented as a means of linking them. As for the impact on social and gender equity, and the current digital divide, according to this document research is needed on more than access alone. There is patently a need for policies to regulate and democratize the new information and knowledge technologies, and it is important to analyze the collective imaginary that is being constructed around them and the different forms of subjectivity that the Internet is encouraging, within a perspective of the future and of changes in social relations. (author's)
Policy climate, scholarship, and provision of emergency contraception at affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Contraception. 2002 Feb; 65(2):143-149.Emergency contraception (EC) has great potential to decrease the incidence and resulting consequences of unwanted pregnancy, including unsafe abortion. We conducted this study to understand EC practices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We contacted 43 International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates in LAC to interview them about EC availability. We collected family planning norms and researched registered EC products in LAC. We searched English- and Spanish-language sources to compile EC literature reviews. Thirty-seven affiliates (86%) responded to the survey, and 62% offer EC. Central and South American affiliates are more likely to offer EC than are Caribbean affiliates. Of those offering EC, 96% offer cut-up packets of oral contraceptives, whereas six affiliates offer dedicated products. Of those not offering EC, 79% believe it constitutes abortion. EC availability and support for the method appear to be increasing in LAC, and clearer distinctions between EC and abortion in medical and policy guidelines should increase acceptance further. (author's)
Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Addendum : Report on the mission of the Special Rapporteur to Brazil on the issue of domestic violence (15-26 July 1996).
[Unpublished] 1997 Jan 21 28 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.2)This document reprints the report of a July 1996 visit to Brazil of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women to conduct an in-depth study of the issue of domestic violence. The introduction notes that this report is a case study meant to complement a previous report on violence against women in the family and that the investigation was conducted at the invitation of the Brazilian government. The first part of the report presents three case histories of women victims of domestic violence. The second session sketches the nature of the problem, and the third section describes the existing international, regional, and national legislative framework dealing with domestic violence. Section 4 describes the role of the police in combating domestic violence and their importance as the first refuge sought by women victims as well as issues pertinent to the existence since 1985 of women's police stations. The fifth section reviews pertinent health policy and notes the shortage of shelters for battered women. Section 6 provides an overview of how the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government have responded to the problem, and the seventh section discusses actions taken by nongovernmental organizations and women's groups. The final section contains conclusions and specific recommendations for appropriate actions at the international, regional, national, and local levels.
Reproductive health programs supported by USAID: a progress report on implementing the Cairo Program of Action.
[Washington, D.C.], USAID, 1996 May. , 20 p.This report details progress made by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in implementing the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The report contains an introduction and an overview of the USAID program. USAID reproductive health programs have: 1) provided leadership for a supportive policy environment through multilateral, regional, and country-level initiatives; 2) developed innovative techniques for operations, biomedical, social science research and for evaluation; and 3) implemented reproductive health programs that promote access and quality in family planning and other reproductive health services, maternal health, women's nutrition, postabortion care, breast feeding, sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention and control, integrated reproductive health programs, programs and services for youth, prevention of such harmful practices as female genital mutilation, male involvement, reproductive health for refugees and displaced people, and involvement of women in the design and management of programs. USAID programs to advance girls' and women's education and empowerment have forwarded women's legal and political rights, increased access to credit, and developed integrated programs for women. Priority challenges and directions for the future include: 1) determining the feasibility, costs, and effectiveness of reproductive health interventions; 2) improving understanding of reproductive health behavior; 3) continuing development of service delivery strategies; and 4) mobilizing resources for reproductive health.
Second Preparatory Committee of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. A review of major events and themes from the standpoint of a non-governmental organization involved in women's issues.
[Unpublished] . 8,  p.The US-based Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), participated in the two-week Second Preparatory Committee (PrepCom II) meeting for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo held in New York City in May 1993. Representatives from governments and 332 NGOs participated in the preparation of the Proposed Conceptual Framework of the Draft Recommendations of the Conference. NGOs participated by lobbying their respective governments. They organized themselves into groups on both a regional and issue basis. A controversy whirled around the importance of environmental concerns to policies of population and development and the role and structure of the family. The Vatican convinced Colombia and other South American nations to request a section entitled The Family, Its Role and Composition. Its concerns centered on sex education, care of the elderly, and AIDS within the family. Morocco also supported this section. The NGO Women's Caucus submitted papers containing specific language on provisions related to women's issues to governmental delegations. The US delegation, headed by Timothy Wirth, renewed its commitment to population issues and affirmed the centrality of women and their reproductive rights to the implementation of population policies. Political undercurrents at PrepCom II revolved around the North-South divide, reproductive health versus family planning, and human rights. In some instances, NGOs on both sides of the divide concurred on some issues. Some Southern NGOs took positions opposite their governments. Some NGOs wanted to expand discussions from family planning to reproductive health. Reproductive rights were the most popular human rights concept at PrepCom II.
In: Reproductive Health and Justice. International Women's Health Conference for Cairo '94, January 24-28, 1994, Rio de Janeiro. New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition, 1994. 36-7.Several women from Latin America, who were among the 227 participants at the International Women's Health Conference for Cairo 1994 held in Rio de Janeiro on January 24-28, 1994, presented a declaration to the plenary session. Due to controversy over the declaration's rejection of population policies, and the lack of time for adequate debate on this and other issues, no action was taken on the draft; its general thrust, however, is consistent with other declarations approved at the conference. Of particular concern to the declaration's authors was the tendency of governments and international agencies to blame poverty and environmental destruction on women's fertility. Although governments must guarantee information and education on sexuality and provide the widest range of safe and effective contraceptives, free or at a subsidized price, reproductive decisions are a private matter. Developments should be sought for people, and all national and regional public policies must respond to the needs of human development rather than viewing population as a function of development. The guarantee the quality of life and well-being of women, both forced maternity and forced contraception must be rejected and social recognition awarded to women's attorney. Also urged is the inclusion of indicators that consider gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation in any evaluations of human development policies.
CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1992 Jan-Mar; 4(1):8.Working class women have always been creative in developing methods of surviving when times get bad. Examples include: earning income from informal sector work, trading in foods stuffs and manufactured items, domestic work. They also alter their consumption patterns by cutting purchases and making do with less, and by planting kitchen gardens. Others relay on remittances from relatives who have migrated to developed nations. Most use multiple strategies to secure the well being of their children and family. These flexible behavior patterns are among the strengths of Caribbean working class women that allow them to deal the harsh realities of poverty. However these strengths have been turned around and used against these women by many governmental and international agencies. The fact that they are able to cope is used to support programs that only perpetuate the situation rather than helping these women to change their lives. These women are caught in a cycle of deprivation, powerlessness, acceptance of hardship, survival strategies, continuing exploitation and continuing deprivation. Because of the actions of such agencies there are 3 basic strategies that should be followed: (1) those designed to ensure day to day maintenance, (2) those designed to determine the elements necessary for longer term solutions, (3) those that challenge negative macroeconomic policies. Strategies must also be distinguished based on those that meet practical gender needs, and those that address strategic gender interests. The importance of this distinction can be seen in the austerity measures which have been central features of most adjustment policies. Policies must be formed in a holistic context that revolve around macro economic issues.