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POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):95-107.The recommendations for further action made by the International Conference on Population (Mexico City, 1984) in the area of population distribution and internal and international migration continue to be an accurate reflection of the current state of scientific and political thinking in Latin America, except for the 1 topic on which they are deficient--female migration. An increasing body of research findings demonstrates the importance of women migrants--especially women as independent migrants. The predominance of women in Latin American rural-to-urban migration flows is well known, but female majorities are found in other important flows (e.g., in some inter-urban and international flows) as well. In general, female migrants tend to be younger than their male counterparts. The kinds of employment most commonly sought by women migrants are related to their traditional roles in the home and in child-rearing. The problems faced by migrant women differ from those confronting men who migrate and vary greatly over a wide range of conditions. (author's)
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 47-54.Southern South America has principally produced rather than received refugees in the past 2 decades, although at present Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia receive refugees. Refugee women are primarily urban and in many cases are obliged to abandon their countries of origin because of their relationships with politically militant men. Forced migration differs from economically oriented migration because external factors rather than the wishes of the individual are the motivating factor. Exile implies a loss of social power. Forced emigration of women occurs in the context of a slow process of incorporation of women into the social, political, and economic life of the nations. The need to include women in the development process in active roles has been increasingly recognized since World War II. The 1975 UN World Conference in Mexico City in observance of the International Year of Women, the UN Decade for Women, the 1980 World Conference on the Decade of Women held in Copenhagen, the 1985 round table on refugee women held in Geneva by the UN High Commission for Refugees, and the 1985 World Conference in Nairobi to evaluate the achievements of the UN Decade for Women all were intended to promote a fuller participation of women in all aspects of life. The need for refugee women to assume new roles and new functions within their families is often a cause of rupture of marital relationships. The processes of exile, adjustment to the new country, and return to the country of origin are all destabilizing. A study of 36 Chilean women who returned after periods of exile averaging 5 years, primarily in Europe, indicated that many were troubled by their status as foreigners and the need to seek new channels of participation and communication in the country of exile. The UN High Commission for Refugees attempts to help refugee women by assisting them in their immediate needs for food and housing, and by promoting their longterm integration into the country of asylum and their eventual return to their homelands. Voluntary agencies implement the programs of the High Commission, which are intended to help the refugee woman achieve self-sufficiency.