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  1. 1

    The impact of changes on Latin American and Caribbean women: education, knowledge and demographic trends. Discussion note.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Women and Development Unit

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 9 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.10)

    Current theoretical and conceptual frameworks have included broader notions of social welfare and the quality of life within development discussions. Gender issues have been more easily integrated into development models. Modernization, as advances in economic conditions and the growth of technology, has rapidly changed societies. Although democracy has been included as a given for human development, a wider gap has appeared between the rich and poor. In Latin America expectations were set up for the social mobility of women and young people, when the debt crisis hit. Future models of women in development must eliminate the gender dichotomies and offer perspectives that explain the contradictions. A proposal was offered for achieving international competitiveness by changing production patterns, using innovation to achieve efficiency and equity, and creating possibilities for international cooperation. Gender equity means redistribution within socioeconomic groups and involvement of women in development. In Latin America, importance was placed on how women were integrated into development. Flexibility and innovation will be the goals of education, which should be compatible with the past traditional role women have carried. Specific measures will need to be introduced for maternal and child care, prenatal care, and flexible working hours. Child care must be part of a coordinated effort among public, private, business, and community sectors. The domestic burden of women will need to be lightened. Reproduction rights in Latin America and the Caribbean must be secured not only for women but also for men. Advances in medicine have reduced risk in childbirth, raised life expectancies, and provided options for women to control unwanted fertility. Excess female mortality due to preventable causes was highest among poor women. Access to education has increased but without a companion increase in labor market opportunity or income levels. In 1977, ECLAC adopted a Regional Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Latin American and Caribbean Development which recognized women's vulnerability and the need for comprehensive, periodic assessments.
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  2. 2

    Socio-economic development and fertility decline: an application of the Easterlin synthesis approach to data from the World Fertility Survey: Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka and Tunisia.

    McHenry JP

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. ix, 115 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/101)

    The relationship between fertility decline and development is explored for Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia. The study applies Richard Easterlin and Eileen Crimmins; theoretical and empirical approach to analyzing World Fertility Survey (WFS) data in a comparative context. The paper specifically questions the strengths and weaknesses of the Easterlin-Crimmins framework when applied to developing country data, and what the framework implies about comparative fertility in these countries. 3 stages in all, an analyst 1st decomposes a couple's final number of children ever born through an intermediate variables framework. Stage 2 emphasized understanding the determinants of contraceptive use, while stage 3 explains the remaining stage-1 and stage-2 variables. A model linking the supply of children, the demand for children, and the cost of contraceptive regulation results. Stage 1 results were promising, stage 2 results were less encouraging, while stage 3 revealed a theoretically incomplete approach employing empirically weak WFS data. While the Easterlin-Crimmins approach may be promising, econometric, theoretical, and data quality and collection improvements are necessary. Among stage-3 variables open to manipulation, higher socioeconomic status was associated with delayed age at 1st marriage, lower infant and child death rates, lower numbers of children desired, increased knowledge of contraception, and reduced levels of breastfeeding. Apart from regional differences, the educational and occupational roles of women in the countries studied were of primary importance in understanding differential fertility.
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