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The new information technologies and women: essential reflections. [La nueva tecnología de la información y la mujer: reflexiones fundamentales]
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America [ECLAC], 2003 Jul. 56 p. (CEPAL - SERIE Mujer y Desarrollo No. 39)Although in Latin America and the Caribbean there is growing concern to take into account the issue of gender in public policies, this process is still embryonic and fragmented in the case of economic and technological policies. The Women and Development Unit of ECLAC is therefore implementing the project "Institutionalization of gender policies within ECLAC and sectoral ministries". The objective of this project is to strengthen technical policies, strategies, tools and capacities, both within ECLAC and in selected countries of the region, in order to encourage equity between men and women in the process and benefits of development, especially with regard to economic and labour policies. One of the activities of the project, organized by the Women and Development Unit together with the International Trade Division of ECLAC and the Centre for Women's Studies and Social Gender Relations of the University of São Paulo, was a meeting of experts on "Globalization, technological change and gender equity" in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, on 5 and 6 November 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the most relevant aspects of the opportunities and restrictions imposed by the processes of globalization and technological change, with the aim of proposing areas for research, as well as an agenda of public policies that would help to achieve equity. This document was presented as a background study for the discussion at the meeting of experts. It is clear from the text that the new technologies are taking us into a dizzy time of new exclusions, and that in addition to being a material reality they are also a discursive product with effects on institutions, public policies and individuals. The study reviews an extensive amount of theoretical literature, as well as most of the research concerning the inclusion and relationship of women in connection with the new information technologies and skills. This review identifies the major obstacle to reinforcing the potential positive impacts of the new technologies as the lack of information on how they, and especially computers, can help policies, and also individual women, to achieve their goals. It is also shown that we are dealing with two disconnected concepts: the information society and the information economy, and the gender perspective is presented as a means of linking them. As for the impact on social and gender equity, and the current digital divide, according to this document research is needed on more than access alone. There is patently a need for policies to regulate and democratize the new information and knowledge technologies, and it is important to analyze the collective imaginary that is being constructed around them and the different forms of subjectivity that the Internet is encouraging, within a perspective of the future and of changes in social relations. (author's)
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Jun-Jul; (59):4-5.A special UN session was held in New York during June 6-10, 2000, to evaluate the progress achieved since the Beijing Conference on Women. According to Françoise Gaspard, France’s representative to the UN Commission on Women’s Rights, negotiations at the special session were particularly difficult. It is always hard to create a satisfactory conference declaration when the rule of the day is consensus. A few countries always oppose such consensus. Latin American countries, however, abandoned their former position similar to that of Iran and the Vatican to instead adopt far more progressive stances upon reproductive rights. Progress is occurring slowly. While still not enough, the conference’s final statement marks a certain number of advances in the fight against violence, women’s role in decision-making, and education, with no steps back in the areas of contraception and abortion. The resulting declaration is therefore not regressive, even though it could have been stronger. It will hopefully serve as a reference statement which nongovernmental organizations will be able to cite when reminding countries of their obligations. Countries should get together to discuss the rising level of prostitution. The important roles of NGOs and French-country involvement were also recognized during the conference, as well as the priorities of education and funding.
Arlington, Virginia, Center for International Health Information, 1997 Dec. 16 p.This booklet presents highlights of 1995-97 activities of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID's) HIV/AIDS program. After a brief description of the current status of the pandemic, USAID's response, and its new strategy, the booklet provides a more in-depth examination of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the highlights of USAID HIV/AIDS prevention activities during the past decade, and USAID's focus on prevention, which focuses on promoting safer sex behavior, increasing condom availability and use, and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The next section of the booklet reviews USAID's proven interventions, such as behavior change communication and research, condom social marketing, and the development of services to prevent and treat STDs. An example is then given of how the three interventions were used successfully to stem transmission in Thailand. The booklet continues by explaining how USAID has targeted its response to developing countries (where it can have a significant impact on slowing the pandemic), youth, and women, and how peer educators and community outreach activities have been used to spread the prevention message. Next, the booklet discusses how USAID has expanded its partnerships with the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, with UNAIDS, and with Japan. The final section details the new USAID strategy for the future that will continue to focus on the three aspects of prevention and will also seek to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals and communities. The booklet also contains case studies of various USAID-funded projects.
JICA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Nov; 6(4):7.Girls Education Project, a two-year program sponsored by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), seeks to address the educational needs of Mayan girls in rural Guatemala. The program is being implemented under the framework of the Japan-US Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspectives. Preliminary fieldwork revealed the importance of ensuring that entire communities, including teachers and parents, appreciate the human right of rural girls to a basic education. The project team will conduct three-day workshops in each of the four pilot states in 1997 to discuss teaching methods, materials, and curricula to promote girls' participation and improve their achievement levels. Also planned is a three-day national seminar involving governmental officials and representatives from the public and private sectors, nongovernmental organizations, professional groups, universities, and ethnic and cultural groups. The bilingual/bicultural method selected for the intervention seeks to implement basic education for Mayan girls in both Spanish and the four main Mayan languages. Another focus is to encourage the students to maintain pride in their cultural heritage.
Reproductive health programs supported by USAID: a progress report on implementing the Cairo Program of Action.
[Washington, D.C.], USAID, 1996 May. , 20 p.This report details progress made by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in implementing the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The report contains an introduction and an overview of the USAID program. USAID reproductive health programs have: 1) provided leadership for a supportive policy environment through multilateral, regional, and country-level initiatives; 2) developed innovative techniques for operations, biomedical, social science research and for evaluation; and 3) implemented reproductive health programs that promote access and quality in family planning and other reproductive health services, maternal health, women's nutrition, postabortion care, breast feeding, sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention and control, integrated reproductive health programs, programs and services for youth, prevention of such harmful practices as female genital mutilation, male involvement, reproductive health for refugees and displaced people, and involvement of women in the design and management of programs. USAID programs to advance girls' and women's education and empowerment have forwarded women's legal and political rights, increased access to credit, and developed integrated programs for women. Priority challenges and directions for the future include: 1) determining the feasibility, costs, and effectiveness of reproductive health interventions; 2) improving understanding of reproductive health behavior; 3) continuing development of service delivery strategies; and 4) mobilizing resources for reproductive health.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:118.This Decree approves the Plan of Operations entered into by the Government of Honduras and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) with respect to women and children for the years 1987-91. The general objective of the Plan is to monitor and improve the situation of women and children in Honduras by means of providing the following services: 1) early attention to and development of children; 2) basic services for rural women and children; and 3) intersectoral social planning and promotion of infancy. Among the specific services to be provided are literacy training and adult education for women, infant nutrition, and programs of social support for women and children. Further provisions of the Decree set forth the details of the Plan for the year 1987, as well as provisions on past agreements between the Government of Honduras and UNICEF, monitoring and evaluation, and the contributions of the Government of Honduras and UNICEF, among other things. UNICEF's contribution is US$1,465,000. (full text)
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the leader of the delegation from Antigua and Barbuda noted that every civilization has nourished the seed of its own destruction, and that modern civilization, with its desire for development, is no exception. Humanity must decide whether to continue to foster the unequal distribution of financial resources or to adopt a more equitable global economy and to foster a small population which consumes less. The view of Antigua and Barbuda is that the ICPD's mission is to plot the course of human history and to avoid disaster by removing the seeds of destruction from modern civilization. Even small nations like Antique and Barbuda must limit population growth or face the destruction of natural resources, especially since the population-reducing avenue of emigration is closing. Specific efforts which have been made include providing adequate training and education to young women who formerly would have left school because of a pregnancy or who left school prematurely. In addition, the islands have had great success in reducing the percentage of births to adolescent mothers, largely through the cooperative work of nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Health. The human race must overcome controversy and cynicism to find new ways of ensuring that our population size and development choices will not destroy our planet.
IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1989 Apr; 23(2):1-2.This article discusses the need for family planning (FP) as part of the development process, applauds its successes and rallies continued momentum of the FP movement. 500,000 women die each year from pregnancy- or labor-related conditions, and 10s of millions of women suffer pregnancy-related illnesses and impairments that undermine their social and economic productivity. Moreover, the 4 major factors that lead to high-risk pregnancies, namely, becoming pregnant before the age of 20, after the age of 35, after 4 or more pregnancies, and < 2 years after an earlier pregnancy, all reveal the need for FP. These tragedies could be avoided by assuring better nutrition, primary health care for all, good antenatal attention and proper facilities and help in childbirth, access to good obstetric care in emergency situations, and universally available FP services. FP organizations must empower women with the knowledge of FP and the means to put it into practice. Developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mexico, in addition to affluent industrialized countries have made strides in FP with the help of such organizations as the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF has helped to motivate large numbers of men and women to determine their ideal family size. It has provided the means for them to reach such goals and has ensured that acceptance of FP has been on a voluntary basis. IPPF has also advised and cajoled governments into becoming involved in FP. In the future, national strategies must produce the building blocks for better policies to help women become more responsible for their lives. The education of women will be vital to achieving this objective as well as other aspects of development.
World Education Reports. 1979 Sep; 20:11-3.The Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology de Mexico (PIACT de Mexico) developed a series of pamphlets for use by rural, illiterate, Mexican women. The graphic design and pictorial sequence were the most important features of the pamphlets which answered questions such as where to obtain oral contraceptives and how to use them. The director of the material development must have rapport with the target audience, who should be involved in the content, sequence, and identification of symbols. Content must be limited to important messages. 10 messages can be portrayed in a pamphlet. Nonverbal materials require more time and effort than verbal materials. Several groups of women were asked to arrange the individual messages into the sequence that was most logical to them. In a test of the pamphlet's effectiveness, 700 interviews of illiterate women found that 70% understood 13 pages and 60-70% could interpret the remaining 3. The pamphlet was 16 pages long and printed in black and white. Backgrounds were kept simple, and a combination of photographs of professional models and line drawings told the stories.