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  1. 1
    125624

    Participation: women and NGOs. 1996 annual report.

    Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA]

    Washington, D.C., CEDPA, [1997]. 20 p.

    This 1996 annual report of the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) opens with a message from CEDPA's board, which notes that the organization's activities have continued to expand through efforts to improve health, development, human rights, and gender equality in Africa, Asia, eastern Europe, and Latin America. In particular, CEDPA worked with nongovernmental organizations and funding agencies to achieve continued growth of women's advocacy, activism, and leadership. During 1996, CEDPA used participatory processes to provide technical assistance and training to 73 community organizations that acted as policy advocates, advanced women's rights, extended media impact, and mobilized interfaith action. Also during 1996, CEDPA's gender-focused family planning and reproductive health projects were expanded; CEDPA conducted a Democracy and Governance Initiative, which involved leading women's groups in an effort to build civil society in Nigeria; family planning, reproductive health, and maternal/child health were promoted in Nepal; and maternal health services were strengthened in Romania. In the area of youth and leadership, CEDPA provided training, funding, and technical assistance to 40 partners in 20 countries and sponsored conferences in the US and India. The Better Life Options for Girls and Young Women program flourished, and adolescent reproductive health was promoted in Africa and Latin America. Girls in Egypt received education and training, and youth rights were promoted in Africa and Asia. CEDPA's capacity-building training program reached 841 people representing 54 countries, and CEDPA partners moved to attain program sustainability and increase gender equity in programs, projects, and institutions. Regional networks strengthened training and advocacy efforts. In addition to describing these activities, this annual report lists CEDPA's training participants by region, sponsors of the global training program, training mentors, partners, supporters, board and staff members, publications, and offices and provides a financial statement for 1996.
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  2. 2
    068771

    Socio-economic development and fertility decline: an application of the Easterlin synthesis approach to data from the World Fertility Survey: Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka and Tunisia.

    McHenry JP

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. ix, 115 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/101)

    The relationship between fertility decline and development is explored for Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia. The study applies Richard Easterlin and Eileen Crimmins; theoretical and empirical approach to analyzing World Fertility Survey (WFS) data in a comparative context. The paper specifically questions the strengths and weaknesses of the Easterlin-Crimmins framework when applied to developing country data, and what the framework implies about comparative fertility in these countries. 3 stages in all, an analyst 1st decomposes a couple's final number of children ever born through an intermediate variables framework. Stage 2 emphasized understanding the determinants of contraceptive use, while stage 3 explains the remaining stage-1 and stage-2 variables. A model linking the supply of children, the demand for children, and the cost of contraceptive regulation results. Stage 1 results were promising, stage 2 results were less encouraging, while stage 3 revealed a theoretically incomplete approach employing empirically weak WFS data. While the Easterlin-Crimmins approach may be promising, econometric, theoretical, and data quality and collection improvements are necessary. Among stage-3 variables open to manipulation, higher socioeconomic status was associated with delayed age at 1st marriage, lower infant and child death rates, lower numbers of children desired, increased knowledge of contraception, and reduced levels of breastfeeding. Apart from regional differences, the educational and occupational roles of women in the countries studied were of primary importance in understanding differential fertility.
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  3. 3
    268663

    Development co-operation with women: the experience and future directions of the fund.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs [DIESA], Development Fund for Women, 1985. 195 p. (United Nations Publication ST/ESA/159)

    This report covers the activities of the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for Women--currently called the United Nations Development Fund for Women--during the period 1978-1983. The objectives of the projects included regional and national strategies for the promotion of development in developing countries. They dealt with poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, self-reliance, health and nutrition; they promoted employment and self-sufficiency and created import-substitution products; they included agricultural production, human resource development through education and training, and institution-building. The assessment affirmed that women do participate in the development process but that they participate under unequal conditions. The findings of the assessment were also in agreement with the view of the General Assembly that changes in the family division of labor are needed in order to secure the participation of women on more equitable terms. Another lesson drawn from the projects that provides guidance for future activities is that projects should preferably be multi-faceted, encompassing human development needs as well as technical subjects. The cultural and political environments in which projects were implemented and the traditions of societies, when properly taken into account, contributed to the positive impact of projects. An obstacle faced in project implementation in several countries was the outdated and thus inadequate preparation of extension workers to cope with the multi-faceted work of women. Institutions were critical elements of project viability. The existence of local and national women's organizations and agencies proved to be a necessary condition for project effectiveness. The Fund reached policy levels from several directions. Although the effectiveness of these approaches varies both by country and by region, an interim judgment is that effective field projects may be the best approach.
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  4. 4
    030193

    Women in health and development: the view from the Americas.

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):249-55.

    This article highlights the central features of the 5-Year Regional Plan of Action on Women in Health and Development, adopted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1981. Although the Plan does not mandate specific actions, it encourages certain activities and establishes an annual reporting system concerning these activities. The Plan recognizes that women's health depends upon numerous factors outside of medicine, including women's employment, education, social status, and accepted roles, access to economic resources, and political power. The low status of women is reinforced by the sexual double standard that makes women responsible for the reproductive process yet denies them the right to control that process. The Plan advocates an incremental approach, in which projects 1st focus on priority areas and groups and then expand to provide more general benefits. Programs exclusively for women are not advocated; encouraged, instead, is the integration of women's health and development activities into the mainstream of general activities promoting health. Among the areas targeted for action are the collection of statistics on women's health, women's nutritional problems, environmental health, maternal-child health services, screening for breast and cervical cancer, and family planning . Community participation is proposed as a good vehicle for local action and an essential tool in the campaign for health for all. Efforts must be made to enlist women's support in identifying community needs, planning health actions, selecting appropriate resources and personnel, establishing and administering health services, and evaluating the results. Overall, the Plan provides a solid basis upon which health authorities of the Americas can build.
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  5. 5
    025380

    Statistics on children in UNICEF countries.

    UNICEF

    New York, UNICEF, 1984 May. 280 p.

    The data in this set of 135 country profiles for 1981 are made up from 9 major sources and cover the countries and territories with which the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) cooperates. In terms of infant morttality, countries are divided into 5 infant mortality groups: a very high infant mortality (a) group of countries, with a 1981 infant mortality rate (IMR) estimate of 150 (rounded) or more deaths per 1000 live births; a very high infant mortality (b) group of countries with a 1981 IMR estimate between 110 (rounded) and 140 (rounded); a high infant mortality group of a middle infant mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of between 26 and 50 (rounded); and a low infnat mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of 25 or less. For each country data are also presented on nutrition, demographic, education, and economic indicators.
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  6. 6
    037684

    Planned parenthood and women's development: lessons from the field.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 67 p.

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