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POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):95-107.The recommendations for further action made by the International Conference on Population (Mexico City, 1984) in the area of population distribution and internal and international migration continue to be an accurate reflection of the current state of scientific and political thinking in Latin America, except for the 1 topic on which they are deficient--female migration. An increasing body of research findings demonstrates the importance of women migrants--especially women as independent migrants. The predominance of women in Latin American rural-to-urban migration flows is well known, but female majorities are found in other important flows (e.g., in some inter-urban and international flows) as well. In general, female migrants tend to be younger than their male counterparts. The kinds of employment most commonly sought by women migrants are related to their traditional roles in the home and in child-rearing. The problems faced by migrant women differ from those confronting men who migrate and vary greatly over a wide range of conditions. (author's)
Intercom. 1980 Jan; 8(1):14.Guyana, a former British colony of about 830,000 population, in the 1970 Census had a composition of 52% East Indian, 31% African, and the balance Amerindian, Portuguese, Chinese, and mixed descent. The crude birth rate is believed to have peaked in 1957-59 at 44.5/1000; by 1978 the birth rate had dropped to about 28.3/1000. The World Fertility Survey of 1975 found that a total fertility rate of 7.1 children/woman in 1961 dropped to 4.4 in 1974. The largest decline in childbearing was in the over 30 age group and the under 20's. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is high; over 95% of a sample of ever-married women had heard of some method. Contraceptive usage is not as high as knowledge; of women exposed and with a partner, 38% said they were contracepting. The pill (11%) and female sterilization (10%) were the 2 most popular effective methods. Usage was lowest among women in common law marriages and visiting unions. Guyanese women overall preferred 4.6 children. Women age 20 thought 3.4 ideal; those over 40 reported 5.8 children as their choice. African women, who marry later than Indian women, preferred more children, 4.8, compared to 4.6 for Indian women. Rural women wanted 4.9 children while urban women wanted 4.3. The crude birth and death rates combine to give a rate of natural increase of 2.1% per year.
Family Coordinator. 1973 Jul; 22(3):331-8.Data collected on behalf of the Planned Parenthood/World Population (PPWP) affiliate to be used in planning a vasectomy education program came from a survey of 387 men and women in Hayward, California, to ascertain the levels of knowledge and prevalence of vasectomy and attitudes toward the operation. The sample was comprised of men and women in 3 income categories, and households were not preselected on a random basis. The survey instrument was a 1-page set of questions, primarily of the closed-ended type which the respondent completed in the presence of the interviewer. The major findings were: 1) PPWP was not identified as a source of aid; 2) most men and women have discussed vasectomy with their spouses; 3) men and women are influenced by attitudes and practices of others with regard to vasectomy; 4) physicians are seen as the main source of information about vasectomy; 5) irreversibility is the major concern of the men and women; and 6) eligible couples can be reached only by a community-side education program. Implications of the survey for a community education program are put into concrete, programmatic terms, indicating lines of direction, points of departure, and crucial ideas sometimes overlooked in service programs. It is concluded that in all areas of a community education program vasectomy should be presented as 1 or a range of alternatives, thus assuring the couple that does elect vasectomy that they really did make a free choice.