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Your search found 149 Results

  1. 1
    374608

    Women’s labour migration: an overview from Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)

    UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
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  2. 2
    389294
    Peer Reviewed

    The global challenge to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women affected by FGM/C.

    McCauley M

    BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.

    Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue. have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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  3. 3
    388438
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual health and reproductive rights at a crossroad.

    The Lancet

    Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.

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  4. 4
    388112
    Peer Reviewed

    Scaling up proven innovative cervical cancer screening strategies: Challenges and opportunities in implementation at the population level in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Holme F; Kapambwe S; Nessa A; Basu P; Murillo R; Jeronimo J

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:63-68.

    The problem of cervical cancer in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) is both urgent and important, and calls for governments to move beyond pilot testing to population-based screening approaches as quickly as possible. Experiences from Zambia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, where scale-up of evidence-based screening strategies is taking place, may help other countries plan for large-scale implementation. These countries selected screening modalities recommended by the WHO that are within budgetary constraints, improve access for women, and reduce health system bottlenecks. In addition, some common elements such as political will and government investment have facilitated action in these diverse settings. There are several challenges for continued scale-up in these countries, including maintaining trained personnel, overcoming limited follow-up and treatment capacity, and implementing quality assurance measures. Countries considering scale-up should assess their readiness and conduct careful planning, taking into consideration potential obstacles. International organizations can catalyze action by helping governments overcome initial barriers to scale-up. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
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  5. 5
    372763

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Evaluation Brief.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.

    This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
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  6. 6
    351869
    Peer Reviewed

    Strategies to expand contraception coverage: another tool in the box.

    Godfrey EM

    Contraception. 2011 Oct; 84(4):339-41.

    This editorial focuses on a strategy to expand contraceptive coverage through the development of a numerical International Statistical Classifications of Diseases (ICD) code for "unwanted fertility." It explains how this strategy would work, how to make the strategy happen through a revision process, and defining unwanted fertility as a medical problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  7. 7
    350101

    Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.

    In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
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  8. 8
    346581

    Hormonal contraceptive options for women with headache: a review of the evidence.

    Edlow AG; Bartz D

    Reviews In Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010 Spring; 3(2):55-65.

    Migraine affects as many as 37% of reproductive-age women in the United States. Hormonal contraception is the most frequently used form of birth control during the reproductive years, and given the significant proportion of reproductive-age women affected by migraine, there are several clinical considerations that arise when considering hormonal contraceptives in this population. In this review, key differences among headache, migraine, and migraine with aura, as well as strict diagnostic criteria, are described. The recommendations of the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding hormonal contraception initiation and continuation in women with these diagnoses are emphasized. Finally, information about the effect of hormonal fluctuations on headache is provided with recommendations regarding contraception counseling in patients who experience headache while taking hormonal contraception.
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  9. 9
    345658

    U S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: adapted from the World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 4th edition.

    Farr S; Folger SG; Paulen M; Tepper N; Whiteman M; Zapata L; Culwell K; Kapp N; Cansino C

    MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 2010 Jun 18; 59(RR-4):1-86.

    CDC created U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, from guidance developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and finalized the recommendations after consultation with a group of health professionals who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during February 2009. This guidance comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. The majority of the U.S. guidance does not differ from the WHO guidance and covers >60 characteristics or medical conditions. However, some WHO recommendations were modified for use in the United States, including recommendations about contraceptive use for women with venous thromboembolism, valvular heart disease, ovarian cancer, and uterine fibroids and for postpartum and breastfeeding women. Recommendations were added to the U.S. guidance for women with rheumatoid arthritis, history of bariatric surgery, peripartum cardiomyopathy, endometrial hyperplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, and solid organ transplantation. The recommendations in this document are intended to assist health-care providers when they counsel women, men, and couples about contraceptive method choice. Although these recommendations are meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance, health-care providers should always consider the individual clinical circumstances of each person seeking family planning services.
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  10. 10
    329053
    Peer Reviewed

    Accuracy of self-screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive use.

    Grossman D; Fernandez L; Hopkins K; Amastae J; Garcia SG

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008 Sep; 112(3):572-8.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate how well a convenience sample of women from the general population could self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptives using a medical checklist. METHODS: Women 18-49 years old (N=1,271) were recruited at two shopping malls and a flea market in El Paso, Texas, and asked first whether they thought birth control pills were medically safe for them. They then used a checklist to determine the presence of level 3 or 4 contraindications to combined oral contraceptives according to the World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria. The women then were interviewed by a blinded nurse practitioner, who also measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the unaided self-screen to detect true contraindications was 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51.7-60.6%), and specificity was 57.6% (95% CI 54.0-61.1%). The sensitivity of the checklist to detect true contraindications was 83.2% (95% CI 79.5-86.3%), and specificity was 88.8% (95% CI 86.3-90.9%). Using the checklist, 6.6% (95% CI 5.2-8.0%) of women incorrectly thought they were eligible for use when, in fact, they were contraindicated, largely because of unrecognized hypertension. Seven percent (95% CI 5.4-8.2%) of women incorrectly thought they were contraindicated when they truly were not, primarily because of misclassification of migraine headaches. In regression analysis, younger women, more educated women, and Spanish speakers were significantly more likely to correctly self-screen (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Self-screening for contraindications to oral contraceptives using a medical checklist is relatively accurate. Unaided screening is inaccurate and reflects common misperceptions about the safety of oral contraceptives. Over-the-counter provision of this method likely would be safe, especially for younger women and if independent blood pressure screening were encouraged.
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  11. 11
    321699

    The implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in the eyes of the mover.

    Nandi-Ndaitwah N

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    Why Women and Peace? The theme imposed itself. The last year of the 20th century represented an invitation and challenge to recapitulate and remember as well as to compare scores and balance sheets of the turbulent epoch we were leaving behind. No doubt, the 20th century was the century of wars. As never before in human history civilians paid the highest price of conflicts and conflagrations. In the two world wars and innumerable local wars, interventions, internal ethnic clashes, revolutions and coups, more than 100 million people were killed - the vast majority of them being civilians. Sometimes they were directly targeted; at other times they were "collateral damage" - to use an ugly euphemism coined by NATO during its 1999 intervention against Yugoslavia. From Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Vietnam to Pol Pot's Cambodia to Iran-Iraq to Afghanistan to Liberia to Sierra Leone to Rwanda to Burundi to Colombia to Iraq again... it is the civilians who suffered the most and among them, women and childrenas the most vulnerable ones. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    321411
    Peer Reviewed

    Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    Cook RJ; Erdman JN; Dickens BM

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99(2):157-161.

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. (author's)
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  13. 13
    313569
    Peer Reviewed

    Challenging the margin: Gender equality and the UN reform process.

    Kettel B

    Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.

    In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
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  14. 14
    315423

    Critiquing the MDGs from a Caribbean perspective.

    Antrobus P

    Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):94-104.

    This article explores ways in which the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. Drawn from the author?s extensive experience of feminist activism in the Caribbean region, it discusses strategies to improve the MDGs. Overall, as a feminist I think of the MDGs as a Major Distraction Gimmick - a distraction from the much more important Platforms for Action from the UN conferences of the 1990s, in Rio 1992 (Environment), Vienna 1993 (Human Rights), Cairo 1994 (Population), Copenhagen (Social Development) and Beijing 1995 (Women), Istanbul 1996 (Habitats), and Rome 1997 (Food), on which the MDGs are based. But despite believing this, I think it worthwhile to join other activists within women?s movements who are currently developing strategies to try to ensure that the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    314640

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [385] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    311438

    Using contraceptive checklists in community-based programs: pills and injectables.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2002. [2] p. (FHI Research Brief No. 6; RB-02-06E)

    Community-based workers worldwide use checklists to determine whether women are medically eligible to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). However, problems may arise when outdated and inaccurate checklists are used. With input from dozens of experts, Family Health International developed new checklists that are easily understandable and consistent with the World Health Organization's (WHO) medical eligibility requirements. (author's)
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  17. 17
    306471
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to modern contraception.

    Welsh MJ; Stanback J; Shelton J

    Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2006; 20(3):323-338.

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. (author's)
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  18. 18
    305507

    Statement by Regional Director Carmen Barroso at the 36th Session of the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, 2 April 2003.

    Barroso C

    New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2003 Apr 2. [3] p.

    In a speech before the 36th Session of the U.N. Commission on Population and Development in New York on 2 April 2003, Carmen Barroso, Regional Director of IPPF/WHR, emphasized the paramount importance of comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and urged the United Nations to give it much greater attention in its future program of work in the area of population. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    302065

    Chiapas women invest in the future.

    Henriquez Tobar E

    New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.

    Responsible for half the world's food production, women play a key role in sustainable food security, particularly in developing countries. Yet they have considerably less access to land and investment funds than men. That is why microcredit, celebrated by an International Year in 2005, often seems like the only solution to break poverty's vicious circle. An example: In the province of Chiapas (Mexico) women are taking advantage of both loans and literacy classes, provided by a programme UNESCO supports. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    300099

    The transnationalization of gender and reimagining Andean indigenous development.

    Radcliffe SA; Laurie N; Andolina R

    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2003 Winter; 29(2):387-416.

    This essay aims to advance feminist debates around globalization in a number of directions. By means of a transnational perspective that takes gender into the heart of the analysis, the essay challenges the erasure of gender from grand theories of globalization, leaving gender difference as merely a local effect of globalization (Freeman 2001). Following path-breaking work, we share the feminist view that globalization is inherently gendered and multiply produced by diverse actors in varied times and spaces and that its theorization has often been implicitly masculine. Our definition of transnationalism owes much to feminist work on globalization, which stresses the complex topographies of political-economic-social and cultural transformations at interconnected scales (the body, the national, and international) that comprise "globalization" (Katz 2001; Nagar et al. 2002; Radcliffe, Laurie, and Andolina 2002). Andean development transnationalism rises to the feminist challenge to move beyond conceptual frameworks that "implicitly construe... global as masculine and local as feminine" (Nagar et al. 2002, 1009). Compared with previous globalization analyses that took a decontextualized and institutional focus (see critique in Adam 2002), our essay delves through the national, local, and bodily scales to trace the impacts of new institutional initiatives such as gender mainstreaming and ethnodevelopment. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    296616

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights now also speaks to children - children's book. [La Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos ahora al alcance de los niños en un libro infantil]

    Endrst EB

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2):[2] p..

    The historic document, celebrated as a major UN achievement, was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It declares that all human beings "are born free and equal in dignity and rights" and goes on to specify in its 30 articles specific areas of freedom. In December 1989, the Assembly went on to adopt a 54-article Convention on the Rights of the Child. Mr. Roth has worked long and hard to help spread the message of the Declaration around the world. First inspired to work on the document when he was an art student in London in 1977, it took him two years to complete a set of 60 x 80 centimetre prints, derived from woodcuts which the artist carved in reverse images on wooden blocks. The linocut prints of these works, embossed on handmade paper, were purchased by the United Nations and subsequently exhibited in the UN Headquarters lobby in New York beginning in December 1982. Additional sets were acquired for both the UN Centre in Vienna and Geneva Headquarters. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    296418

    Security Council focuses on women, peace and security. [El Consejo de Seguridad se centra en la mujer, la paz y la seguridad]

    UN Chronicle. 2004 Sep-Nov; 41(3):[3] p..

    The participation of women is a key variable in achieving sustainable peace and security. Having recognized this principle in its resolution on women, peace and security, the Security Council, during a working roundtable meeting at the Rockefeller Foundation on the 1 July, discussed the concrete implications of resolution 1325 (2000) on their daily activities. The Permanent Missions of Canada, Chile and the United Kingdom to the United Nations and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security co-sponsored this roundtable with Council members. The discussion focus built on the recommendations developed at the first roundtable held in January 2004. In his opening remarks, Ambassador Lauro L. Baja, Jr. of the Philippines stated: "We cannot lose sight of women's concerns in the reconstruction processes. Sustainable and durable peace can only be achieved when women's concerns and contributions are incorporated in every aspect of rebuilding the peace, including social and economic reconstruction." (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    296204
    Peer Reviewed

    Does use of hormonal contraceptives among women with thrombogenic mutations increase their risk of venous thromboembolism? A systematic review.

    Mohllajee AP; Curtis KM; Martins SL; Peterson HB

    Contraception. 2006 Feb; 73(2):166-178.

    Because use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) confers some risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), there is concern that this effect may be greater among women with thrombogenic mutations. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for all articles published from January 1966 through September 2004 for evidence relevant to hormonal contraception and thrombogenic mutations. Of 301 articles identified by the search strategy, 16 evaluated COCs, and no studies were found for other hormonal methods. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. A total of 10 studies together provided "good" evidence of a greater risk of VTE (risk ratios of 1.3-25.1) and cerebral vein or cerebral sinus thrombosis among COC users with factor V Leiden mutation when compared with nonusers who have the mutation. The evidence for prothrombin and other thrombogenic mutations was not as strong as for factor V Leiden mutation. It is unclear whether the type of COC or duration of use modifies the risk of VTE among women with thrombogenic mutations. (author's)
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  24. 24
    296203
    Peer Reviewed

    Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review.

    Mohllajee AP; Curtis KM; Martins SL; Peterson HB

    Contraception. 2006 Feb; 73(2):154-165.

    Previous research has suggested that hormonal contraceptive users, compared with nonusers, may be at increased risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for all articles from January 1966 through February 2005 for evidence relevant to all hormonal contraceptives and STIs (including cervical chlamydial and gonococcal infection, human papillomavirus, trichomoniasis, herpes and syphilis). We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of 83 identified studies. Studies of combined oral contraceptive and depot medroxyprogesterone use generally reported positive associations with cervical chlamydial infection, although not all associations were statistically significant. For other STIs, the findings suggested no association between hormonal contraceptive use and STI acquisition, or the results were too limited to draw any conclusions. Evidence was generally limited in both amount and quality, including inadequate adjustment for confounding, lack of appropriate control groups and small sample sizes. The observed positive associations may be due to a true association or to bias, such as differential exposure to STIs by contraceptive use or increased likelihood of STI detection among hormonal contraceptive users. (author's)
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  25. 25
    296206
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of combined oral contraceptives among women with migraine and nonmigrainous headaches: a systematic review.

    Curtis KM; Mohllajee AP; Peterson HB

    Contraception. 2006 Feb; 73(2):189-194.

    This systematic review examines evidence evaluating whether women with headaches who use combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have a greater risk of stroke than women with headaches who do not use COCs. We searched MEDLINE for articles published from 1966 through March 2005 relevant to headaches and COC use as risk factors for stroke. Of the 79 articles identified, nine met our selection criteria (eight reports of six observational studies plus one meta-analysis). All studies reported specifically on migraine headaches. Evidence from six case-control studies suggested that COC users with a history of migraine were two to four times as likely to have an ischemic stroke as nonusers with a history of migraine. The odds ratios for ischemic stroke ranged from 6 to almost 14 for COC users with migraine compared with nonusers without migraine. The three studies that provided evidence on hemorrhagic stroke reported low or no risk associated with migraine or with COC use. (author's)
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