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  1. 1

    The UNDP spends $2m. on grass-roots income-generation in Uganda.

    AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1994 Jul-Aug; 4(4):16.

    A $2 million UNDP project designed to provide assistance to those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is having problems finding its target population in Uganda. Staff cannot rely on many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), so money is being directly channeled to villages via local leaders, who weed out the undeserving. Internationally, most funds are directed at prevention, education, and prediction of the social and economic impacts of the epidemic. However, the impact at the national, local, and family levels has gone unaddressed. The approach has been charitable, rather than sustainable. The aims of the project are as follows: 1) establishment of income generation programs for orphans, widows, low income survivors, and communities with large numbers of patients with AIDS; and 2) establishment of skills and resources in local groups to implement and manage the projects. 90 microprojects are currently funded in 20 of 39 Ugandan districts. Funds are channelled through the HIV/AIDS Grassroots Initiative Support Fund. The steering committee includes representatives of the Uganda AIDS Commission and the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. In an effort to rehabilitate prostitutes in Kampala, $6000 was loaned to 21 women and 15 orphans to buy cooking and sewing equipment. Other income generation programs include carpentry and agricultural projects and piggeries. The project time has been extended by 18 months and funds have increased from $700,000 to $2,000,000.
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  2. 2

    The breastmilk controversy.

    Panos Institute

    WORLDAIDS. 1992 Jan; (19):11.

    In 1991, researchers followed 212 mothers and infants who tested HIV-1 negative at delivery in Rwanda. Later 8 infants tested HIV positive. Both the infants and mothers became infected simultaneously. They ruled out other routes of infection and concluded that the colostrum and breast milk were possibly the route of infection for 4 infants and positively the route for 4 infants. They postulated that when one 1st becomes infected with HIV, one may have high levels of HIV in the blood and thus be more infectious in the time period between 1st contracting HIV and development of HIV antibodies. All the mothers were vulnerable to sexual exploitation because they were either unmarried or widowed or had absent husbands and unstable sexual partnerships. Thus the risk factor of economic and social instability enhanced their vulnerability to exposure to HIV. The researchers suggested that heal professionals should counsel HIV negative mothers who are at high risk about the possibility of transmitting HIV via breast milk if they happen to seroconvert. In some developing countries like Rwanda, no alternatives to breast feeding exist so the researchers advocated intervention studies to assess the efficacy and feasibility of alternative nutritional practices, such as wet nursing, for mothers at high risk of acquiring HIV after delivery. They did not conclude that already HIV infected mothers should not breast feed since research had not yet proved that infants acquire HIV from breast milk of infected mothers. In fact, other research showed that HIV positive infants who are breast fed live longer than bottle fed HIV infants. After publication of this study, WHO continued its commitment to promote, protect, and support breast feeding no matter what the HIV prevalence of a country is.
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  3. 3

    The women of rural Asia.

    Whyte RO; Whyte P

    Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)

    This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
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  4. 4

    Marriage and divorce in Australia.

    Mcdonald PF

    In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 1. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 183-98. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)

    Australian marriage patterns in the late 19th century reflected those found among the English middle class, with a high proportion of males never marrying and late ages at 1st marriage. However, the attainment of the fertility transition in the 1930s stimulated a greater willingness to marry, even under adverse economic circumstances. A dramatic decline in age at marriage accompanied World War II. This decline, which continued throughout the 1950s and 60s, was further stimulated in the late 1960s by widespread use of oral contraceptives. Effective birth control allowed women to marry at a young age but delay childbearing until their careers had become established. The 1970s, however, were marked by the collapse of the early marriage pattern. The economic insecurity of that period led to a more conservative approach to the decision to marry, with postponement until economic security or psychological preparedness had been attained. These patterns have been noted across geographic, ethnic, religious and class groupings. Divorce reached high levels in 1947, as a result of the disruption caused by World War II, but then declined. The Family Law Act of 1975, which liberalized divorce requirements, led to an upsurge in the divorce rate in the 1970s. By 1980, there were 11.7 divorces/1000 married women. The increase in divorce is not just occurring among the younger generation of married women, but equally affects marriages that took place during the 1950s and 60s. There are an average of 2 children in divorces taking place among parents. 10% of ever-married women and 4% of ever-married men are widowed by the age of 50 years. By age 70, 40% of women and 11% of men are widowers. Although there has been little systematic study of remarriage, rates appear to be higher among younger men and women. Rates of remarriage seem to be higher after widowhood for men than women. Research should be directed to the question of whether the more cautious approach to marriage emerging in recent years achieves better quality marriages. Attention should also be given to trends in the proportion of men and women never marrying.
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