Your search found 28 Results
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 184 p. (Interactive Visualization of Health Data)In order to reduce health inequalities and identify priority areas for action to move towards universal health coverage, governments first need to understand the magnitude and scope of inequality in their countries. From April 2016 to October 2017, the Indonesian Ministry of Health, WHO, and a network of stakeholders assessed country-wide health inequalities in 11 areas, such as maternal and child health, immunization coverage and availability of health facilities. A key output of the monitoring work is a new report called State of health inequality: Indonesia, the first WHO report to provide a comprehensive assessment of health inequalities in a Member State. The report summarizes data from more than 50 health indicators and disaggregates it by dimensions of inequality, such as household economic status, education level, place of residence, age or sex. This report showcases the state of inequality in Indonesia, drawing from the latest available data across 11 health topics (53 health indicators), and eight dimensions of inequality. In addition to quantifying the magnitude of health inequality, the report provides background information for each health topic, and discusses priority areas for action and policy implications of the findings. Indicator profiles illustrate disaggregated data by all applicable dimensions of inequality, and electronic data visuals facilitate interactive exploration of the data. This report was prepared as part of a capacity-building process, which brought together a diverse network of stakeholders committed to strengthening health inequality monitoring in Indonesia. The report aims to raise awareness about health inequalities in Indonesia, and encourage action across sectors. The report finds that the state of health and access to health services varies throughout Indonesia and identifies a number of areas where action needs to be taken. These include, amongst others: improving exclusive breastfeeding and childhood nutrition; increasing equity in antenatal care coverage and births attended by skilled health personnel; reducing high rates of smoking among males; providing mental health treatment and services across income levels; and reducing inequalities in access to improved water and sanitation. In addition, the availability of health personnel, especially dentists and midwives, is insufficient in many of the country’s health centres. Now the country is using these findings to work across sectors to develop specific policy recommendations and programmes, such as the mobile health initiative in Senen, to tackle the inequalities that have been identified.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Mar. 80 p.Climate change is one of many forces contributing to an unfolding water crisis. In the coming years, the demand for water will increase as food production grows, populations grow and move, industries develop and consumption increases. This can lead to water stress, as increasing demand and use of water strain available supplies. One of the most effective ways to protect children in the face of climate change is to safeguard their access to safe water and sanitation. This report shares a series of solutions, policy responses and case studies from UNICEF’s work around the world.
Geneva, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 114 p.This report presents the first ever estimates of the population using ‘safely managed’ drinking water and sanitation services – meaning drinking water free from contamination that is available at home when needed, and toilets whereby excreta are treated and disposed of safely. It also documents progress towards ending open defecation and achieving universal access to basic services. The report identifies a number of critical data gaps that will need to be addressed in order to enable systematic monitoring of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets and to realize the commitment to ‘leave no one behind’.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Jun. 84 p.This report details the results achieved by UNICEF for and with children worldwide in 2016. It covers the organization’s programme work, humanitarian action, partnerships and advocacy efforts in all strategic sectors, with an emphasis on reaching every child and accelerating progress for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged girls and boys. The report also highlights UNICEF’s innovations, its efforts to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and the stories of individual children and families directly affected by UNICEF’s work in the course of its 70th anniversary year.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 164 p.In 2015, 26% of the deaths of 5.9 million children who died before reaching their fifth birthday could have been prevented through addressing environmental risks – a shocking missed opportunity. The prenatal and early childhood period represents a window of particular vulnerability, where environmental hazards can lead to premature birth and other complications, and increase lifelong disease risk including for respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancers. The environment thus represents a major factor in children’s health, as well as a major opportunity for improvement, with effects seen in every region of the world. Children are at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals, because it is children who will inherit the legacy of policies and actions taken, and not taken, by leaders today. The third SDG, to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages,” has its foundation in children’s environmental health, and it is incumbent on us to provide a healthy start to our children’s lives. This cannot be achieved, however, without multisectoral cooperation, as seen in the linkages between environmental health risks to children and the other SDGs. This publication is divided by target: SDGs 1, 2 and 10 address equity and nutrition; SDG 6 focuses on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); SDGs 7 and 13 call attention to energy, air pollution and climate change; SDGs 3, 6 and 12 look at chemical exposures; and SDGs 8, 9 and 11 study infrastructure and settings.
WASH’Nutrition: A practical guidebook on increasing nutritional impact through integration of WASH and nutrition programmes for practitioners in humanitarian and developent contexts.
Paris, France, Action Contre la Faim [ACF], 2017. 156 p.Undernutrition is a multi-sectoral problem with multi-sectoral solutions. By applying integrated approaches, the impact, coherence and efficiency of the action can be improved. This operational guidebook demonstrates the importance of both supplementing nutrition programmes with WASH activities and adapting WASH interventions to include nutritional considerations i.e. making them more nutrition-sensitive and impactful on nutrition. It has been developed to provide practitioners with usable information and tools so that they can design and implement effective WASH and nutrition programmes. Apart from encouraging the design of new integrated projects, the guidebook provides support for reinforcing existing integrated interventions. It does not provide a standard approach or strict recommendations, but rather ideas, examples and practical tools on how to achieve nutrition and health gains with improved WASH. Integrating WASH and nutrition interventions will always have to be adapted to specific conditions, opportunities and constrains in each context. The guidebook primarily addresses field practitioners, WASH and Nutrition programme managers working in humanitarian and development contexts, and responds to the need for more practical guidance on WASH and nutrition integration at the field level. It can also be used as a practical tool for donors and institutions (such as ministries of health) to prioritise strategic activities and funding options. (Excerpt)
Republic of India - Health, nutrition and population technical assistance to North East States (India).
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Jun 16. 9 p.The eight states in India’s North-East region are connected to the rest of the country by a narrow corridor and (until recently) were classified by the Indian government as special category states. This non-lending technical assistance (NLTA) was requested by the governments of Nagaland and Meghalaya, stemming from previous engagements with the World Bank Group - the state human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) program (supported by International Development Association (IDA) financing) in the case of Nagaland, and International Finance Corporation (IFC) advisory services for private sector involvement in government health insurance program and investment in medical education in the case of Meghalaya. Both state governments show commitment to improving health and nutrition services and outcomes and look to the World Bank to provide support. The state governments requested the Bank for technical assistance in specific areas for which other sources of support, particularly the national health mission, were not available, and improvements in which held the potential to leverage the effectiveness of existing government financing. The development objective of this activity is to support development of health system strategies, policies, and management systems in North East states.
First WHO report on neglected tropical diseases 2010: Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.Neglected tropical diseases blight the lives of a billion people worldwide and threaten the health of millions more. These close companions of poverty weaken impoverished populations, frustrate the achievement of health in the Millennium Development Goals and impede global public health outcomes. Wider recognition of the public health significance of neglected tropical diseases and better knowledge of their epidemiology have stimulated necessary changes in public health thinking to approach and achieve control. This report presents evidence to demonstrate that activities undertaken to prevent and control neglected tropical diseases are producing results -- and that achievements are being recognized. By 2008, preventive chemotherapy had reached more than 670 million people in 75 countries.
Kobe, Japan, WHO, Centre for Health Development, 2010.  p.This report exposes the extent to which certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from a wide range of diseases and health problems. This report provides information and tools to help governments and local leaders reduce health inequities in their cities. The objective of the report is not to compare rural and urban health inequities. Urban health inequities need to be addressed specifically for they are different in their magnitude and in their distribution.For the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population is living in urban areas, and this proportion continues to grow. Cities concentrate opportunities, jobs and services, but they also concentrate risks and hazards for health. The rapid increase of people living in cities will be among the most important global health issues of the 21st century. Urban growth has outpaced the ability of governments to build essential infrastructures, and one in three urban dwellers lives in slums or informal settlements. In all countries, certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from poor health, and these inequities can be traced back to differences in their social and living conditions. To unmask the full extent of urban health inequities, it is important to disaggregate health and health determinants data within cities. Unless urgent action is taken to address urban health inequities, countries will not achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goal targets. Acting on urban health inequities requires the involvement of organized communities and all levels of government -- local, provincial and national. Solutions often lie beyond the health sector, and require the engagement of many different sectors of government and society. Local leaders and governments can and should play a key role in promoting urban health equity. (Excerpts)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010 Sep.  p. (Progress for Children No. 9)‘Achieving the MDGs with Equity’ is the focus of this ninth edition of Progress for Children, UNICEF’s report card series that monitors progress towards the MDGs. This data compendium presents a clear picture of disparities in children’s survival, development and protection among the world’s developing regions and within countries. While gaps remain in the data, this report provides compelling evidence to support a stronger focus on equity for children in the push to achieve the MDGs and beyond. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.World Health Statistics 2010 contains WHO's annual compilation of data from its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of progress towards the health-related Millennium Development Goals and targets. This volume's indicators, taken together, provide a comprehensive summary of the current status of nine aspects of national health and health systems: mortality and burden of disease; cause-specific mortality and morbidity; selected infectious diseases; health service coverage; risk factors; health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines; health expenditure; health inequities; and demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2009.  p.This report sets out a 7-point strategy for comprehensive diarrhoea control that includes a treatment package to reduce child deaths, and a prevention package to reduce the number of diarrhoea cases for years to come. The report looks at treatment options such as low-osmolarity ORS and zinc tablets, as well as prevention measures such as the promotion of breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, immunization against rotavirus -- a leading cause of diarrhoea -- and proven methods of improving water, sanitation and hygiene practices. Diarrhoea's status as the second leading killer of children under five is an alarming reminder of the exceptional vulnerability of children in developing countries. Saving the lives of millions of children at risk of death from diarrhoea is possible with a comprehensive strategy that ensures all children in need receive critical prevention and treatment measures. (Excerpt)
Global Public Health. 2006 Feb; 1(1):31-48.Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):13-19.Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. (author's)
[Baltimore, Maryland], Catholic Relief Services, 2006 Jul. 53 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADJ-423)In Zambia, HIV&AIDS is still approached primarily as a health issue, and therefore, interventions focus mainly on prevention and treatment. The provision of affordable, accessible and reliable public services is essential in supporting health maintenance and reducing stress for people infected and affected with HIV&AIDS. Reliable delivery of good quality water and sound basic sanitation are critical in reducing exposure to pathogens to which HIV-positive people are particularly vulnerable. Where water services are inadequate or inaccessible, time and monetary costs of access to good quality water in sufficient quantities are high, particularly for HIV-infected people and their caregivers. CRS responded to an announcement by WHO to conduct an assessment on the adequacy of water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to home-based care strategies for people living with HIV&AIDS in Zambia. The assessment was commissioned by the WHO with the goal of producing evidence-based guidance on water and sanitation needs in home-based care strategies, particularly in resource-poor situations. In addition, WHO desired the assessments to lead to both practical and strategic recommendations to be made at the programme and policy levels, while also identifying the most critical measures to be taken by the health sector and the water and sanitation sector to provide short- and medium-term solutions in the area of water, sanitation and hygiene support to home-based care. (excerpt)
Woking, England, Plan, 2004 Oct. 52 p. (Working Paper Series)Safe water and environmental sanitation services (by which we mean solid and liquid waste facilities, vector and pest control as well as food hygiene) are vital for people's dignity and health, and are especially important in ensuring the healthy development of children. The lack of such facilities is responsible for over two million child deaths each year. This working paper aims to support Plan staff by looking at the whole issue of water and environmental sanitation and enable the organisation as a whole to direct resources in an integrated and cost-effective way. By doing so, we will be able to play a crucial role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and in the 'International Decade for Action, Water for Life (2005-15)'. There is a clear link between poverty, poor water quality and a lack of environmental sanitation facilities. This working paper aims to position Plan's approach to water and environmental sanitation within the context of the broader international development goals andwithin Plan's own commitment to child centred community development. From this standpoint, it then looks in more detail at the main challenges linked to water and environmental sanitation and in each case details how Plan staff can put our approach into practice and the main issues to bear in mind while doing so. Further important issues to consider are also included. (excerpt)
Toxicology. 2004 May 20; 198(1-3):39-44.The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 mg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 mg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 mg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 mg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 mg/l. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2006 Sep. 33 p.Water is as fundamental to human life as the air we breathe. Yet, ironically, this essence of life can have an injurious impact if its source is not free from pollution and infection -- and the most likely pollutant is human faeces that have not been disposed of and have spread because of a lack of basic sanitation and hygiene. Young children are more vulnerable than any other age group to the ill effects of unsafe water, insufficient quantities of water, poor sanitation and lack of hygiene. Globally, 10.5 million children under the age of five die every year, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Lack of safe water, sanitation and adequate hygiene contribute to the leading killers of children under five, including diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia, neonatal disorders and undernutrition. This means that Millennium Development Goal 7 -- to ensure environmental sustainability -- and its associated 2015 targets of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation are of vital relevance to children. MDG 7 is also crucial in relation to improving nutrition, education and women's status, and success in this field will thus play a major role in determining whether the world meets its MDG targets across the board. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Oct 7; 368(9543):1212.A joint report from UNICEF and WHO published last month showed that 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean water and 2.6 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation. Last week, UNICEF launched its own report card on water and sanitation giving detailed statistics from each global region. It is grim reading despite UNICEF's optimism that some regions may now be on track to meet the water target in the seventh Millennium Development Goal--to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. Some areas, such as rural sub-Saharan Africa, lag way behind on the water target, and most regions are failing spectacularly on sanitation targets. The report's headline statistic is that 1.5 million children die every year from preventable diarrhoeal illnesses and many thousands more are disadvantaged by wide-reaching health and educational consequences because of these failings. Unfortunately, experience to date suggests that statistics like this numb the mind rather than shock it into action as there is a distinct lack of political will to do more. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2006 Oct; 6(10):615.A leading expert recently expressed an ambitious view that waterborne infectious diseases could be consigned to history. Alan Fenwick (Imperial College, UK) points out that the continual donation of drugs and other inexpensive treatments by a number of effective global health partnerships could control many waterborne and vectorborne diseases effectively by 2015, which is the target for reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). He insists that treatment will substantially reduce disease morbidity, while also lowering overall disease transmission. However, disease transmission will still continue unless we tackle the root causes of these diseases, which are poor access to safe water and basic sanitation. A new joint WHO/UNICEF report on the progress towards meeting the water and sanitation MDG targets provides grim reading. The report states that the world is barely on track to reducing the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water, and the sanitation target is likely to be missed entirely. By 2015, if the current trends continue, over 900 million people will not have access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion people will be without access to basic sanitation. According to the report, current efforts need to be stepped up by almost a third to meet the water target and almost doubled to meet the sanitation target. (excerpt)
Journal of Human Ecology. 2005; 17(3):223-228.This study examined the chemical composition /quality of Well water in Ede Area of Southwestern Nigeria with a view to determine their suitability for human consumption. The pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and cations concentration such as calcium (Ca/2t), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg/2+) and potassium (K+) of 21 well water samples were determined using pH meter, Electronic Conducting (EC) meter and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer respectively. The results of this study shows that potassium (K+) was the most abundant dissolved cation in the well water sampled in the area. All the dissolved cations such as Ca/2t, mg/2+ , Na+ , K+ and generally conformed with the recommendation of W.H.O maximum limits. However, since most of the inhabitants of the area depend on well water supply for drinking, the authors of this study recommended that waste disposal facilities should be sited in the outskirts of the towns. In this regard, the site of the well should be at least thirty meters away from any source of contamination. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2): p..The World Health Organization (WHO) on 9 June launched an action plan to save 13.4 million people in the drought-ravaged Horn of Africa from plummeting into a major health crisis. WHO said that even if the severe drought lifted, the people in the region, already worn down by natural and man-made disasters, would not be able to save themselves unless health was targeted. According to the agency, an investment of just $25 million would substantially reduce death and illness from preventable diseases and save thousands of lives in the seven affected countries: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, the Sudan and Uganda. WHO's action plan aims to reduce the countries' vulnerability, improving the population's basic level of health by helping health professionals throughout the region improve the quality of what little water there is, combat severe malnutrition, and crack open essential access to basic health services such as immunization. The new plan includes community-based epidemic surveillance projects, which enlist local networks in reporting on disease out breaks, resulting in rapid diagnosis and response. (excerpt)
Natural resources committee calls for global water plan - UN Committee on Natural Resources second session, Feb 22-Mar 4, 1994 addresses water management and sustenance if mineral resources.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2): p..A worldwide plan to avert an impending global water crisis was called for by the Committee on Natural Resources at its second session (22 February-4 March, New York). The strategy should define specific areas of priority to diminish significantly by the year 2010 the threat to freshwater resources, the 24-member expert body said in asking the UN Commission on Sustainable Development to undertake that task. "Water shortages are becoming a common occurrence in industrialized and developing countries alike", stated a report examined by the Committee. "The world may be reaching a water crisis situation of global proportions." The Committee also asked Governments to establish a dynamic and multisectoral approach to water resources management, including assessing and protecting potential sources of freshwater. As for mineral resources--another major concern--the Committee wanted the Commission to forge a dialogue between the UN system and the international mining industry to develop new approaches to ensure a sustainable supply of mineral resources. Workshops on mineral resource assessment projects were recommended. A report was asked on key advances in state-of-the-art technologies to minimize environmental degradation resulting from mining and related processing. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Cities concentrate people in high-density settlements creating severe demand for services like water supply and sanitation. It is really a matter of concern that some 95 per cent of the urban population increase over the next 30 years will be in less developed countries. Out of 19 megacities of the world, 15 are in developing countries. Cities are increasingly forced to transport water from longer distances, often beyond natural watersheds and even across national boundaries, as in the case of Johannesburg. In other cases, over-exploitation of groundwater has resulted in major environmental problems. Mexico City, for example, has sunk more than 10 metres in the last 70 years. Thailand is facing irreversible damage to freshwater aquifers from saltwater intrusion, caused by over-abstraction of groundwater. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. 43 p.The right to the highest attainable standard of health was enshrined in WHO’s constitution over 50 years ago, and recognized as a human right in article 12.1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This right extends to the underlying determinants of health; central among these are safe water and adequate sanitation. Yet we have entered the new millennium with one of the most fundamental conditions of human development unmet: universal access to water. Of the world’s 6 billion people, at least 1.1 billion lack access to safe drinking-water. The lives of these people who are among the poorest on our planet are often devastated by this deprivation, which impedes the enjoyment of health and other human rights such as the right to food and to adequate housing. Water is the essence of life and human dignity. Water is fundamental to poverty reduction, providing people with elements essential to their growth and development. Recently, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which monitors the implementation of the Covenant, adopted General Comment No. 15 in which water is recognized, not only as a limited natural resource and a public good but also as a human right. The right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water, and it must be enjoyed without discrimination and equally by women and men. At the Millennium Summit, States agreed to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking-water. We are pleased to issue this publication as a contribution to the International Year of Freshwater, celebrated worldwide throughout 2003 as an immense opportunity to highlight and promote the right to water as a fundamental human right. (excerpt)