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Use of stable-isotope techniques to validate infant feeding practices reported by Bangladeshi women receiving breastfeeding counseling.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007 Apr; 85(4):1075-1082.The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until age 6 mo. Studies relying on mothers' selfreported behaviors have shown that lactation counseling increases both the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to validate reported infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh; intakes of breast milk and nonbreast-milk water were measured by the dose-given-to-the mother deuterium dilution technique. Subjects were drawn from the large-scale Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, study of combined interventions to improve maternal and infant health, in which women were randomly assigned to receive either exclusive breastfeeding counseling or standard health care messages. Data on infant feeding practices were collected by questionnaire at monthly visits. Intakes of breast milk and nonbreast-milk water were measured in a subsample of 98 mother-infant pairs (mean infant age: 14.3 wk) and compared with questionnaire data reporting feeding practices. Seventy-five of the 98 subjects reported exclusive breastfeeding. Mean (+or-SD) breast milk intake was 884 +or- 163 mL/d in that group and 791 +or- 180 mL/d in the group reported as nonexclusively breastfed (P = 0.0267). Intakes of nonbreast-milk water were 40 _ 80.6 and 166 +or- 214 mL/d (P < 0.0001), respectively. Objective cross-validation using deuterium dilution data showed good accuracy in reporting of feeding practices, although apparent misreporting was widely present in both groups. The dose-given-to-the-mother deuterium dilution technique can be applied to validate reported feeding behaviors. Whereas this technique shows that the reports of feeding practices were accurate at the group level, it is not adequate to distinguish between feeding practices in individual infants. (author's)
Building back better. A 12-month update on UNICEF's work to rebuild children's lives and restore hope since the tsunami.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Dec. 28 p.Immediately after the tsunami, UNICEF rushed in to deliver medical supplies and since then has continued to support basic health care for children. In this massive effort, 1,113,494 children under 15 have been immunized against measles, 493,699 children have received vitamin A supplements, 26,040 pregnant women were supplied with iron tablets, and 199,924 women and children received insecticide-treated bednets to protect them against malaria. UNICEF has also provided 14 ambulances to 11 districts in Aceh, and 2,000 midwives are being supported with training or supplies to help ensure safe deliveries in the temporary encampments. UNICEF is now helping to construct new village health posts that will enable the people of Aceh to achieve a level of care they have never had before. And, because of an incursion of polio from outside Indonesia, UNICEF launched a major campaign to prevent polio. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], 2000. 93 p.The overall aim of the consultation was to advance the agenda of the evaluation of disease burden from environmental risk factors. This consultation was part of an ongoing process aiming primarily at the following: To provide methodological guidance on the quantitative assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risk factors at national or regional level; the process should result in a practical guide. To create a network of experts interested in developing the conceptual and practical implementation of environmental disease burden assessment and sharing experience to define priorities in future developments. This meeting constitutes the first consultation of experts in the framework of this project. The participants undertook a structured review of the proposed elements and methodological approaches for environmental burden of disease assessment. A first draft of the methodological elements is provided below. This was tabled in a series of presentations and developed during the meeting. This project builds upon a previous consultation organized by WHO/ILO. Several papers from that consultation were published in the September 1999 issue of the journal Epidemiology. It also builds upon and adapts concepts put forward in the global assessment methodology of the GBD study. In 1999 the Department of Protection of the Human Environment intensified its efforts and started a project to specifically address the Environmental Burden of Disease (EBD). This is the first meeting dedicated to this project. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. 19 p.To capture some of the lessons learned in India, UNICEF commissioned an independent evaluation of its WES programme in India over the past 30 years. The evaluation, which took place in 1998 and 1999, was conducted by a team of independent sector specialists, using literature reviews, interviews, surveys and other methods. The conclusions were published in a report. This publication, which presents the team’s findings in a format accessible to a wider audience, explores lessons learned that can help other nations in their efforts to provide universal WES coverage for their citizens. (author's)
In: Pollution control and waste management in developing countries, edited by Rogers W'O Okot-Uma, Georges E. Ekosse, Yvonne Gotlop Bogatsu, Kwesi Darkoh, Otlogetswe Totolo. London, England, Commonwealth Secretariat, 2000 Dec. 185-92. (Environment Series)Water quality may be assessed in aspects of potable water and wastewater. Guidelines for water quality differ from standards in that they are more flexible. Guidelines may actually be alerted to develop standards. …This chapter is intended to distinguish between guidelines and standards for water quality. Guidelines are generally not meant to be synonymous to standards. For instance, WHO guidelines are meant to assist countries of the world to operate within a certain range of levels for particular constituents in water. The chapter will further discuss the purpose for water quality guidelines and standards. Furthermore, factors to be considered for setting national water quality standards will be suggested. (excerpt, modified)