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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016. 12 p.Gender inequalities and harmful gender norms are important drivers of the HIV epidemic, and they are major hindrances to an effective HIV response. While access to HIV services for women and girls remain a concern, a growing body of evidence also shows that men and adolescent boys have limited access to HIV services. Current effort to advance both gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights as key elements of the HIV response do not adequately reflect the ways that harmful gender norms and practices negatively affect men, women and adolescent body and girls in all their diversity. This in turn increases HIV-related vulnerability and risk among all of these groups.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 48 p.This advocacy booklet provides real-life examples to illustrate how HIV prevention can save lives in diverse cultural and geographical settings. It includes chapters on youth and HIV, promoting and distributing male and female condoms, protecting women and girls, linking HIV prevention with other sexual and reproductive health care, and empowering populations who are at particular risk. The booklet features stories from Belize, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, and Tajikistan.
Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1808-1809.Important questions about implementation of the new guidance by WHO and UNAIDS on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling were raised by Daniel Tarantola and Sofia Gruskin. Their comments and those by other critics centre on individuals' rights to confidentiality, to refuse testing, and to not disclose their status if they fear negative consequences. We are concerned that a singular focus on the individual's rights of refusal overlooks the rights of the individual's sexual partners to protect themselves from HIV. Human rights and public health will be best served by an ethical framework which recognises that both persons in a sexual relationship or exchange have equal rights and responsibilities for their mutual pleasure and protection. Further, these individual rights are meaningless unless each partner respects the rights of the other. Protection of the human rights of both partners needs more commitment from health systems, and from societies, than simply ensuring informed consent and confidentiality. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2006 Dec; 6(12):760.It has been 21 years since the test that detects antibodies to HIV was developed, and in the ensuing decades, many millions of people have learned that they are infected with the virus that causes AIDS. But many, many more have not. Today, with almost 40 million HIV-infected people worldwide, UNAIDS estimates that globally, fewer than one in every ten people with HIV in developing countries knows their status. Those who do not miss out on treatment services, which are slowly expanding in even the poorest countries. In November, WHO/UNAIDS issued a draft of operational recommendations for an approach to HIV testing that is designed to redress this yawning gap. The approach is known as provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and it suggests that health-care workers in countries with generalised epidemics, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa should encourage their patients in wards and clinics of all stripes to be tested for HIV even if they do not present with symptoms. The current standard for delivering HIV tests is client-initiated, meaning that individuals who wish to learn their status ask for the test. (excerpt)