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  1. 1

    WHO specifications and guidelines for condom procurement. Draft.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991 May. iii, 61 p.

    This WHO Specifications for Latex Rubber Condoms is appropriate for photocopy as an attachment to the Invitation to Bid and Purchase Order. Section 6 provides a place to indicate size or other specifications. The standard provided is the minimum for use and storage and delivery. Procurement needs to take into account 1) quality of design, and 2) conformance to specifications. Essential criteria are uniform high strength and elasticity and the absence of holes. Chapters include: 1) reason for specification and guidelines, 2) choice of design features, 3) alternative design specifications. The specifications include: 1) scope and definitions, 2) international standards and other publications, 3) requirements for materials, construction, lubrication, tensile properties, freedom from holes, bursting volume and pressure, colorfastness, individual packages, identification marking on individual packages, workmanship, 4) quality assurance provisions for compliance, objective evidence, inspection by purchaser, sampling procedures, examinations and tests for specific properties, inspection of packaging and marking, 5) packaging for delivery (inner boxes, consumer packs, exterior shipping cartons, markings for lot traceability) 6) ordering data. The WHO guidelines for condom procurement reports on 1) testing to insure conformance to specifications, 2) qualifying condom suppliers, 3) invitation to bid, 4) purchase order, 5) predelivery quality check. Additional support documents include: 1) essential performance criteria (limiting condoms that will break during use, that may leak during use, that may deteriorate on the shelf), 2) choosing from available design options (length, width, thickness, shape, lubrication, color, packaging), 3) manufacturers list, 4) invitation to bid, 5) WHO forms: Request for offer and request for sealed bids, 6) purchase order, 7) aggregate analysis criteria for shipments or orders. The recommended condom is parallel sided, reservoir end, 49 2 mm flat width or 53 2 mm flat width, 170 to 180 mm length, .05-.08 mm single wall thickness, smooth surface, no color, translucent, silicone fluid (plain) lubricant, and packaged in square plastic-aluminum foil laminate in 100 units per inner box.
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  2. 2

    Involving the community: Thailand.

    Viravaidya M; Potts M

    In: Potts M, Bhiwandiwala P, eds. Birth control: an international assessment. Baltimore, Maryland, University Park Press, 1979. 71-91.

    The planning, implementation, achievements, and existing problems facing a pilot community-based distribution (CBD) family planning program in Thailand are described. The program was begun in 1973-74 under auspices of IPPF following the Thai government decision to allow trained midwives to dispense oral contraceptives. Experience with the program has shown that such programs can provide adequate levels of medical supervision, be culturally acceptable, and have a decided impact on national fertility within 2 years. Administrative, financial, and structural elements of the program are summarized. The program was started to provide an alternative to existent clinical services and provide more complete coverage in rural areas. The IPPF donor relationship was useful to the launching of the program. The program has concentrated on training local nonmedical personnel for distribution of oral contraceptives and condoms. Both local doctors and field supervisors are available for advice to the distributors. The program now extends to all areas of the country. Communications activities play a large role in the program. Demographic effects of the program to 1977 are tabulated. The pilot project also involved an institutional and a private sector distribution program. There is need for a greater variety of contraceptive methods available through the program sources. Integrated family planning/development projects are now being tried.
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  3. 3

    [Developments in the IPPF. 3. IPPF recommendations of guidelines for the distribution of contraceptives for protection of the users' rights] Entwicklungen in der IPPF. 3. IPPF Empfehlungen von Richtlinien fuer die Verteilung von Kontraeptiva zum Schutz der Rechts der Vebraucher.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Governing Board

    Profamilia Informationen, December 1975-January 1976. p. 20-21.

    The Central Medical Committee and the law Board of the IPPF have suggested that the following 5 guidelines, concerning the distribution of contraceptives, presented by the Community Based Distribution Programs, be accepted and enforced. 1) The distributor should obtain adequate information from and about the user, to ensure that he will be able to use the contraceptives properly and to judge the effects use or nonuse of a particular contraceptive will have on the health of the user. 2) The distributor should function as much as possible in a framework where information concerning and services providing various methods of birth control are available, so that the user may choose the most suitable alternative. 3) The distributor should see that appropriate information concerning proper use of a contraceptive method chosen by the user is available to him or her. 4) The distributor should have on hand information concerning doctors or agencies for consultation, if further help is needed. 5) The distrubutor should supervise, control, and judge the continuing use of the contraceptive technique by the user and maintain a system of referrals to ensure the user's right to adequate care. These guidelines should be modified by family planning organizations to conform to national exigencies. Furthermore, the legitimate relationship between doctor, distributor, and user may be partially formalized by application of standing regulations, use of brochures about contraceptives and their effects, questionnaires, printed statements of consent, and other measures.
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  4. 4

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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  5. 5

    The community-based distribution of family planning supplies: programmes and choices.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    Draft report of a meeting of specialists in contraceptive distribution, London, September 28-30, 1973. (London, IPPF, 1973), 65 p.

    A report of a meeting of specialists in contraceptive distribution held in London in September 1973 is presented. The specialists represented most of the community-based distribution schemes outside the People's Republic of China. They unanimously agreed that these schemes are capable of involving millions who are not reached by the existing programs. The meeting recommended that the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) take the lead in the formation of groups to work in community-based contraceptive distribution. The programs are discussed in terms of: 1) organizational structure; 2) staff; 3) contracted skills; 4) distribution chain; 5) depot holders; 6) contraceptives; 7) promotion,; and 8) program results. The possible aims of any program to distribute supplies and resources are discussed. Criteria for judging the appropriateness of an organization for carrying out the tasks are given. 5 options for the future with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. They are: 1) no new initiative; 2) activities confined to the IPPF; 3) organizations linked to the IPPF; 4) supplementation of the resources of an appropriate existing organization; and 5) a new organization.
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  6. 6

    Costa Rican Demographic Association (Asociacion Demografica Costarricense (ADC): the coupon system controversy.

    Korten DC; Ickis V; Ickis JC

    Managua, Nicaragua, Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas, 1973. 43 p. (INCAE Management Case No. 9-575-601)

    This case study was developed as a teaching tool for administrative family planning personnel. The Costa Rican Demographic Association (ADC) assumed responsibility for the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) through commerical outlets in a program started by Alberto Gonzalez. Gonzalez had organized a rural distribution system of OCs by recruiting local women to sell OCs to friends and relatives at reduced prices. The number of women involved grew so rapidly, Gonzalez, who was a founder of ADC and its first Executive Director, expanded the distribution system to urban areas. In 1964, however, stiff opposition to the distribution system was made by the College of Pharmacists, for OCs were being sold at greatly reduced prices through noncommerical outlets. After difficult negotiation, the College agreed, in 1967, to allow the ADC to import and distribute contraceptives providing a pharmacist supervised the distribution, a doctor's prescription was obtained, and the ADC disburse OCs in pharmacies. The latter provision forced ADC to abandon its highly successful system of individual distributors. Instead, a woman had to go to a clinic, obtain a doctor's prescription as well as a blue (minimal charge) or green (no charge) coupon and then find an authorized outlet to purchase the OCs at a reduced price. The pharmacist had to keep special inventories and maintain a coupon system in order to obtain credit from ADC. ADC had to make sure inventories were maintained and that proper controls were placed on the distribution process. By 1971, 233,309 cycles of OCs were distributed through the coupon system. Nonetheless, questions were raised by USAID and other organizations about control procedures and pricing. It was suggested that it might be more convenient for the patient if the clinics themselves could assume the responsibility of supplying OCs to patients.
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  7. 7

    Availability and manufacture of contraceptives in South East Asia.

    Jackson M; Peers R

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. (IPPF). Proceedings of the 7th conference of the IPPF, Singapore, February 10-16, 1963: changin g patterns in fertility. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1964. (International Congress Series No. 72) p. 583-589

    2 lists of availability and manufacture of contraceptives, referring mainly to spermicides, in South East Asia are presented. The 1st list states those countries that manufacture contraceptives, those countries that rely on imports, and those countries that both manufacture and import. The 2nd lists the main exporting firms, stating the countries in Asia to which they export and giving information about the dating of products and the control of prices. Information about 2 subcommittees o f the Medical Committee of the IPPF who evaluate contraceptive products and recommend standards for field trials is also given.
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