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Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2017. 38 p.This document provides technical content on ZIKV, its manifestations, complications, modes of transmission, and prevention measures to be used in answering frequently asked questions and conveying messages in information and communication materials, community talks, press conferences, etc. Recommendations for the preparation of risk communication and action plans to respond to ZIKV are included. This guide to activities and recommendations for managing risk communication on ZIKV is designed for spokespersons, health authorities and health workers, other sectors, and partners inside and outside the health sector to assist them in tailoring communication initiatives to the needs of each country and target audience. The elimination of mosquito breeding sites remains the most important strategy for the prevention and control of ZIKV (as well as dengue and chikungunya) infection. Therefore, communication plans for the response to ZIKV should include intersectoral action and community engagement to modify behaviors and encourage sustained practices to eliminate breeding sites and control the mosquito, as well as to inform and educate target audiences about the steps they can take to prevent ZIKV transmission. The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations agreed that, “due to continuing geographic expansion and considerable gaps in understanding of the virus and its consequences, Zika virus infection and its associated congenital malformations and other related neurological disorders, ZIKV continues to be a public health emergency of intenational concern.
[Geneva, Switzerland], International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2016 Feb 29.  p.This document is an emergency plan of action created by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the country of Honduras. The document includes a situational analysis of the Zika emergency in Honduras and an operational strategy and plan to combat the outbreak.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Jun 9.  p.As of 8 June 2016, 60 countries and territories report continuing mosquito-borne transmission of which: 46 countries are experiencing a first outbreak of Zika virus since 2015, with no previous evidence of circulation, and with ongoing transmission by mosquitos. 14 countries reported evidence of Zika virus transmission between 2007 and 2014, with ongoing transmission. In addition, four countries or territories have reported evidence of Zika virus transmission between 2007 and 2014, without ongoing transmission: Cook Islands, French Polynesia, ISLA DE PASCUA -Chile and YAP (Federated States of Micronesia). Ten countries have reported evidence of person-to-person transmission of Zika virus, probably via a sexual route. In the week to 8 June 2016, no new country reported mosquito-borne or person-to-person Zika virus transmission. As of 8 June 2016, microcephaly and other central nervous system (CNS) malformations potentially associated with Zika virus infection or suggestive of congenital infection have been reported by eleven countries or territories. Three of those reported microcephaly borne from mothers with a recent travel history to Brazil (Slovenia, United States of America) and Colombia (Spain), for one additional case the precise country of travel in Latin America is not determined. In the context of Zika virus circulation, 13 countries and territories worldwide have reported an increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and/or laboratory confirmation of a Zika virus infection among GBS cases. As of 8 June, Cabo Verde has reported a total of six cases of microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities with serological indication of previous Zika infection. Based on research to date, there is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and GBS. The global Strategic Response Framework launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016 encompasses surveillance, response activities and research. An interim report has been published on some of the key activities being undertaken jointly by WHO and international, regional and national partners in response to this public health emergency. A revised strategy for the period July 2016 to December 2017 is currently being developed with partners and will be published in mid-June. WHO has developed new advice and information on diverse topics in the context of Zika virus. WHO’s latest information materials, news and resources to support corporate and programmatic risk communication, and community engagement are available online. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016 May 13.  p. (WHO/ZIKV/MOC/16.2 Rev.1)The mosquito vector that carries the Zika virus thrives in warm climates and particularly in areas of poor living conditions. Pregnant women living in or travelling to such areas are at equal risk as the rest of the population of being infected by viruses borne by this vector. Maternal infection with Zika virus may go unnoticed as some people will not develop symptoms. Although Zika virus infection in pregnancy is typically a mild disease, an unusual increase in cases of congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological complications in areas where outbreaks have occurred, has significantly raised concern for pregnant women and their families, as well as health providers and policy-makers. The aim of this document is to provide interim guidance for interventions to reduce the risk of maternal Zika virus infection and to manage potential complications during pregnancy. This guidance is based on the best available research evidence and covers areas prioritized by an international, multidisciplinary group of health care professionals and other stakeholders. Specifically, it presents guidance for preventing Zika virus infection; antenatal care and management of women with infection; and care during pregnancy for all pregnant women living in affected areas, with the aim of optimizing health outcomes for mothers and newborns. The guidance is intended to inform the development of national and local clinical protocols and health policies that relate to pregnancy care in the context of Zika virus transmission. It is not intended to provide a comprehensive practical guide for the prevention and management of Zika virus.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.The World Malaria Report 2013 summarizes information received from malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2012 report. It highlights the progress made towards global malaria targets set for 2015, and describes current challenges for global malaria control and elimination.
Larval source management: a supplementary measure for malaria vector control. An operational manual.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.Larval source management (LSM) refers to the targeted management of mosquito breeding sites, with the objective to reduce the number of mosquito larvae and pupae. When appropriately used, LSM can contribute to reducing the numbers of both indoor and out-door biting mosquitoes, and -- in malaria elimination phase -- it can be a useful addition to programme tools to reduce the mosquito population in remaining malaria ‘hotspots’. This operational manual has been designed primarily for National Malaria Control Programmes as well as field personnel. It will also be of practical use to specialists working on public health vector control, and malaria programme specialists working with bilateral donors, funders and implementation partners. It has been written by senior public health experts of the malaria vector control community under the guidance of the WHO Global Malaria Programme. The manual’s three main chapters provide guidance on: the selection of larval control interventions, the planning and management of larval control programmes, and detailed guidance on conducting these programmes. The manual also contains a list of WHOPES-recommended formulations, standard operating procedures for larviciding, as well as a number of country case studies.
Report of the Director General of the World Health Organization. Implementation of General Assembly resolution 66/289 on consolidating gains and accelerating efforts to control and eliminate malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa, by 2015.
[New York, New York], United Nations, General Assembly, 2013 Apr 5.  p. (A/67/825)The present report is submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 66/289. It provides a review of progress in the implementation of that resolution, focusing on the adoption and scaling-up of interventions recommended by the World Health Organization in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission and key challenges impeding progress, including a shortfall in financing for malaria control globally. It provides an assessment of progress towards the 2015 global malaria targets, including Millennium Development Goal 6, targets set through the African Union and the World Health Assembly and goals set through the Global Malaria Action Plan of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. It elaborates on the challenges limiting the full achievement of the targets and provides recommendations to ensure that progress is accelerated up to and beyond 2015.
Indoor residual spraying: an operational manual for indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria transmission control and elimination.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.This manual has been created to enhance existing knowledge and skills, and to assist malaria programme managers, entomologists and vector control and public health officers to design, implement and sustain high quality IRS programmes. Though comprehensive, this manual is not intended to replace field expertise in IRS. The manual is divided into three chapters: IRS policy, strategy and standards for national policy makers and programme managers; IRS management, including stewardship and safe use of insecticides, for both national programme managers and district IRS coordinators; IRS spray application guidelines, primarily for district IRS coordinators, supervisors and team leaders. This manual will enable national programmes to: develop or refine national policies and strategies on vector control; develop or update existing national guidelines; develop or update existing national training materials; review access and coverage of IRS programmes; review the quality and impact of IRS programmes.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p. (WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2013.3)Guidelines for testing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) were first published by WHO in 2005. The revised guidelines were reviewed by a WHOPES informal consultation on innovative public health pesticide products, held at WHO headquarters on 22-26 October 2012. Industry was invited to attend the first 2 days of the meeting to exchange information and provide their views, after which their comments were further reviewed by a group of WHO-appointed experts, who finalized the guidelines by consensus. The purpose of this document is to provide specific, standardized procedures and guidelines for testing LNs for personal protection and malaria vector control. It is intended to harmonize testing procedures in order to generate data for registration and labelling of such products by national authorities and provide a framework for industry in developing novel LN products. This document replaces the previous guidelines, published by WHOPES in 2005. (Excerpts)
First WHO report on neglected tropical diseases 2010: Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.Neglected tropical diseases blight the lives of a billion people worldwide and threaten the health of millions more. These close companions of poverty weaken impoverished populations, frustrate the achievement of health in the Millennium Development Goals and impede global public health outcomes. Wider recognition of the public health significance of neglected tropical diseases and better knowledge of their epidemiology have stimulated necessary changes in public health thinking to approach and achieve control. This report presents evidence to demonstrate that activities undertaken to prevent and control neglected tropical diseases are producing results -- and that achievements are being recognized. By 2008, preventive chemotherapy had reached more than 670 million people in 75 countries.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2008; 87(7):693-6.Malarial infestation in pregnancy is a major public health concern in endemic countries and ranks high amongst the commonest complications of pregnancy, especially in large areas of Africa and Asia. It is an important preventable cause of significant maternal morbidity and mortality with associated fetal as well as perinatal wastage. The burden of malaria is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa where it contributes directly or indirectly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The need for prompt and accurate diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy cannot, therefore, be overemphasized. This commentary focuses on the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy.
MJAFI. Medical Journal Armed Froces India. 2008; 64(1):57-60.World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 1.7-2.5 million deaths and 300-500 million cases of malaria each year globally. As an initiative WHO has announced Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme aimed at 50% reduction in deaths due to malaria by 2010. The RBM strategy recommends combination approach with prevention, care, creating sustainable demand for insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and efficacious antimalarials in order to achieve sustainable malaria control. Malaria control in India has travelled a long way from National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953 to National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme in 2003. In India, the malaria eradication concept was based on indoor residual spraying to interrupt transmission and mop up cases by vigilance. This programme was successful in reducing the malaria cases from 75 million in 1953 to 2 million but subsequently resulted in vector and parasite resistance as well as increase in P falciparum from 30-48%. In view of rapidly growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional monotherapies and its spread in newer areas, the programme was modified with inclusion of RBM interventions and revision of treatment guidelines for malaria. Early case detection and prompt treatment, selective vector control, promotion of personal protective measures including ITNs and information, education, communication to achieve wider community participation will be the key interventions in the revised programme. (author's)
Strategic and technical meeting on intensified control of neglected tropical diseases: a renewed effort to combat entrenched communicable diseases of the poor. Report of an international workshop, Berlin, 18-20 April 2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2006.  p. (WHO/CDS/NTD/2006.1)Throughout the developing world, socioeconomic progress is impeded by ancient and entrenched infectious diseases that permanently diminish human potential in very large populations. These diseases have largely vanished from affluent nations but continue to flourish in tropical and subtropical climates under the living conditions that surround impoverished populations -- the people left behind by socioeconomic development. These neglected tropical diseases thrive in areas where water supply, housing and sanitation are inadequate, nutrition is poor, literacy rates are low, health systems are rudimentary and insects and other disease vectors are constant household and occupational companions. Neglected tropical diseases continue to permanently maim or otherwise impair the lives of millions of people every year, frequently with adverse effects starting early in life. They anchor affected populations in poverty and also compromise the effectiveness of efforts made by other sectors to improve socioeconomic development. For example, there is ample evidence that children heavily infected with intestinal worms will not fully benefit from educational opportunities and are more likely to suffer poor nutritional status. Adults permanently disabled by blindness or limb deformities may be a burden in rural agricultural communities that eke out a living from subsistence farming. In addition, the stigma attached to many of these diseases closes options for a normal family and social life, especially for women. Efforts to control these diseases thus free people to develop their potential unimpeded by disabling disease and, in so doing, increase the chances that efforts in other sectors, such as education and agriculture, will be successful. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Jan; 369(9558):248.In September, 2006, WHO recommended wider use of indoor spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT)--once banned because of its toxic effects on the environment--and other insecticides to control malaria. Since then, a number of African countries have made their old foe DDT their new friend. Malawi is the latest, announcing last week that it would be introducing indoor residual spraying with DDT in its fight against malaria. WHO cited many reasons for making DDT a main intervention in malaria control, alongside insecticide-treated bednets. DDT has the potential to substantially reduce malaria transmission. The chemical is better than other insecticides, as it lasts longer, thereby reducing the number of times that houses need to be sprayed, is cheaper, and can repel mosquitoes from indoor environments, as well as kill those that land on sprayed surfaces. But DDT is far from problem-free. WHO, and countries that decide to adopt indoor residual spraying with the insecticide, need to monitor any negative effects of the chemical on health. They also need to ensure that DDT does not contaminate crops. (excerpt)